1 May 2005 (Labour Day, evening)
The eighth search is to scrutinize En. Mohd. Fadli Ghani's paper entitled "Karya-Karya Sains Ulama Melayu, 1800-1950: Satu Tinjauan Awal" which he had e-mailed on 28 January 2005 as an attachment. It is 3.10 pm and only my daughter is at home watching TV.
I have only plucked these names and details which have to do with medicine from En. Fadli's 19-page paper.
Sheikh Wan Ahmad bin Wan Muhammad Zain al-Fathani (1856-1908)
See also Search 6 re Tok Guru Haji Wan Ahmad Mohd Zain. He was born in Kampung Jambu, Pattani on 10 April 1856. He was the grandson of Syeikh Wan Mustafa al-Fathani, a clergy who became Imam and admiral during the sacred war (perang sabil) in Pattani. He received early education from his own father, Tuan Guru Haji Wan Muhammad Zain @ Haji Wan Din before receiving education from Tok Bendang Daya and studied in Mekah, Baitul Maqdis and Al-Azhar University in Cairo, Egypt. He then became a teacher in Masjidil Haram. He was renowned in many fields including chemistry, medicine, Islamic history in Southeast Asia, and was a master of the Arabic language. He wrote more than 15 books in the Malay language and 10 in Arabic. While serving as a teacher in Mekah, among his students included Haji Abdullah Musa al-Kalantani who was Mufti of Johore (died in 1907), Wan Ishak Abdullah who was Mufti of Kelantan (died in 1915), Haji Omar Sungai Keladi (died in 1946), Tok Kemuning (died 1934), Tok Kenali (died 1933), Tok Selehong (died 1935), Tok Jelapang (died 1935), Haji Wan Musa who was Mufti of Kelantan (died 1939), Dato' Laksamana Haji Muhammad (died 1939), Haji Ismail Abdul Majid who was Mufti of Pontianak (died 1950), Tok Bachok (died 1953), Haji Ibrahim Tok Raja who was Mufti of Kelantan (died 1955), Tok Pulau Ubi (died 1955), Dato Perdana Nik Mahmood who was Menteri Besar of Kelantan (died 1964), Haji Muhammad Said Linggi (died 1926), Tengku Mahmud Zuhdi who was Sheikhul Islam of Selangor (died 1956), Haji Muhammad Salleh who was Grand Qadhi of Cambodia, Muhammad Jabbar Khatib who was Maharaja Imam of Sambas Government (where?), Syeikh Hassanuddin who was Mufti of Deli (where?) (died 1937), and many more. He died on 14 January 1908 in Mekah at age 51.
Syeikh Wan Muhammad bin Ismail al-Fathani (1844-1915)
He was well-known by the title Syeikh Nik Mat Kechik Pattani. He was the grandnephew and adopted son of Syeikh Daud al-Fathani, a renowned writer. He was born in Pulau Duyong (Mermaid Island), Terengganu in 1844 but migrated to Mekah at age two. He studied under many teachers in Mekah before he became a teacher in Masjidil Haram. Besides teaching, he managed the haj pilgrims. He was a clergy and a writer. He wrote more than 10 books on Islam, history, Islamic law, medical sciences, biology, and Islamic cosmology. His most notable book was "Matla' al-Bardain" published in 1897. He died on 6 March 1915 at age 71.
Haji Muhammad Said bin Muhammad Taib (1877-1962)
He was born in Anak Bukit, Alor Star, Kedah in 1877. He was better known as Tabib Haji Mat Said Yan. See Search 6 re Tabib Haji Said Yan. He received his early education from several religious schools (pondok) in Kedah before he went to study in Mekah. He was elected to be Qadhi in several districts in Kedah besides teaching Islam and becoming a tabib (En. Fadli had indicated both tabiband bomoh in his paper). He studied medical knowledge after he retired from being Qadhi. He wrote many books on medicine and made medicines. Altogether, he wrote more than 15 articles on Islamic preaching (dakwah), medicine and became an author and publisher for the newspaper Nun between 1926 - 1932. He wrote "Selusuh Memudahkan Perempuan Beranak" in 1952 concerning how to expedite delivery in women. He died in 1962 at age 85.
Focus of early Malay writing on medicine
According to En. Fadli, the early Malay writings were focused on mainly three things - health advice, treatment of diseases, and description of medicines. Three types of medicines implicated were medicines based on plants and herbs, metals and minerals, and those based on animal products. The Malay medical practice included recital of verses from the al-Qur'an, jampi and serapah.
Syeikh Syarifuddin al-Abasi al-Fathani
The earliest medical writing traced is "Sisa-sisa Berguna" by Syeikh Syarifuddin al-Abasi al-Fathani written circa 1500s. Also see Search 7 on Syeikh Syarifuddin.
Syeikh Wan Ahmad al-Fathani
Syeikh Wan Ahmad al-Fathani learnt about medical knowledge from an expert from India named Syeikh at-Tabib Abdul Rahim al-Kabili and wrote five books. His first book "Luqtat al-Ijlan" contained medical methodologies, procedures on how to make medicines, values of medicines and treatment. His second book "Tayyib al-Ihsan" discussed how to cure diseases, types of medicines, values of medicines in treating certain diseases (however, it was not clarified what the diseases were). His third book was "al-Firqadain wa Jawahir al-Iqdain" in 1894 which discussed the medicinal values of plants, vegetables, shoots of woody plants, fruits, animals and poultry for human health including the goodness of gemstones for humans. His fourth book was "Hadiqat al-Azhar wa ar-Rayahin" published in 1307 Hijrah (1890 Masehi) which discussed the values of gemstones. His fifth book "Raudh az-Zawahir fi Bayan Khawas al-Jawahir" also discussed the use of gemstones.
Syeikh Abdul Qadir bin Abdul Rahman al-Fathani
He translated "Raudh az-Zawahir fi Bayan Khawas al-Jawahir" but his work was not published. No reason was provided as to why his work was not published.
Syeikh Ishak Muhammad Hashim
He was an administrator in the government of Kubang Pasu Darul Qiyam (where is this?). He was a clergy who wrote on medicine for use by his people (rakyat). But almost all of his writings were burnt in a fire which razed Pondok Pulau Pisang in 1962. One of his books traced was "Risalah Perubatan" which was written in 1815. See also Search 7 re this book.
Haji Muhammad bin Muhammad Salleh al-Minangkabauwi
He was better known as Haji Muhammad Seberang Perak and was renowned for his knowledge of medicine but none of his writings can be found.
The guidebook on Haj pilgrimage to Mekah
The guidebook "Zad al-Haj" was published in Kelantan in 1938 by two authors, Syeikh Wan Adam Wan Abdullah and Syeikh Hassan Muhammad Nor al-Fathani. It was written for the Haj pilgrimage and contained a chapter dedicated to the discussion on advice on healthcare and disease prevention among pilgrims. It cannot be ascertained whether both authors were doctors or not.
It is now 5.00 pm. I will end here.
En. Fadli Ghani's paper entitled "Karya-Karya Sains Ulama Melayu, 1800-1950: Satu Tinjauan Awal" which he had e-mailed on 28 January 2005 contained 19 pages when printed on A4 paper. The names mentioned in this paper which had to do with medicine were:
Sheikh Wan Ahmad bin Wan Muhammad Zain al-Fathani (1856-1908)Syeikh Wan Muhammad bin Ismail al-Fathani (1844-1915)Haji Muhammad Said bin Muhammad Taib (1877-1962)Syeikh Syarifuddin al-Abasi al-FathaniSyeikh Wan Ahmad al-FathaniSyeikh Abdul Qadir bin Abdul Rahman al-FathaniSyeikh Ishak Muhammad HashimHaji Muhammad bin Muhammad Salleh al-MinangkabauwiIt appears that many of the early Malay doctors were from Pattani and their names had al-Fathani added at the end (suffix).Seberang PerakDoes this refer to the island of Sumatera, Indonesia?
Telehealth Research Group
School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia
School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia