Wednesday, 23 February 2011

Looking for Dr Khalid Hassan (Pasir Mas)

"Medical students (often senior ones) dominated the presidency and other positions for the greater part of the first 3 to 4 decades. Some of them included Mahmud Merican, Toh Ban Hock, John Ramanathan, Khalid Hassan, Maurice Choo, K Prabhakaran, Christie Tan, Peter Lee, Tan Chi Chiu, Eugene Sim, Fidah Alsagoff, Lee Hung Ming, James Hui, Lee Chiern Earn, Ruban Poopalalingam, and Shanker Pasupathy." 

Dr Khalid Hassan is from a village in Pasir Mas, Kelantan, Malaysia.

Dr Khalid Hassan had the following academic and professional qualifications:
MBBS (S'pore), MRCP (UK), MRCPath, DCP (Lond), DTM & H (B'kok)

Dr Khalid Hassan had served at three places (not in order):

  1. Dr Khalid Hassan, MBBS (S'pore), MRCP (UK), MRCPath, DCP (Lond), DTM & H (B'kok), Head, Department of Haematology, Institute for Medical Research, Jalan Pahang, 50588 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  2. Dr Khalid Hassan, Ampang Puteri Specialist Hospital Suite 1-2, KL, Malaysia. Tel: +60-3-4270-2500. Specialisation: Haematology
  3. Dr Khalid Hassan, MRCP(UK) FRCP(Lond.) FRCPATH, Pakar Haematologi, PUSRAWI
There is no further update on Dr Khalid Hassan at the three places where he had served (last search on 21 January 2020).

  1. There is a request from Singapore from a colleague of Dr Khalid Hassan who wishes to meet with him. [2011]
  2. There is a second request from his classmate who wanted to contact him. [2020]
Useful links:

  1. Mohd Azman bin Che Soh (Pasir Mas / Johor). He was Dr Khalid Hassan's patient in 1970s. Facebook

Prof Faridah

The Malaysian Homeopathic Medical Practitioners Association

Homeopathic Society in Malaysia

Homeopathic Society Malaysia

Name of Society
The Malaysian Homeopathic Medical Practitioners Association [ MRHP Malaysia ]
[A registered Society & Gazette in Parliament No 1048 / 84 ]

National Homeopathic Society of Malaysia
Having branches all over Malaysia.

Office Address:
No.11, Bangunan Tabnung Haji Lama, Jalan Dato Pati, 15000 Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia.

Tel & E Mail
Tel: 09- 7440440 , Fax 09-7976948 E mail:


Senior President
Prof Dr Nik Omar bin Haji Nik Daud
Home Address: No.122 Taman University, Kg Gelang Mas, Meranti, Pasir Mas, Kelantan, Malaysia. Tel: 019-9401915

Vice President
Prof Dr Mat Zin Hj Abd. Rahman
Lot 34, Taman Riong, Machang, Kelantan.
Tel:09-975 3797

Secretary General
Prof Mohd Nasir Hj Md Zain
Address: No.11, Bangunan Tabung Haji Lama, Jl Dato Pati, Kota Bharu, Kelantan.
Tel: 09-7440440


Tuesday, 22 February 2011

Masjid Sultan in Singapore

Masjid Sultan
1 N Bridge Rd, Singapore
Tel: +65-6293 4405

The original Masjid Sultan (Sultan's Mosque) was a single-storey building with a double-tiered roof, as other mosques in Tanah Melayu have been built. It was built by Sultan Hussain Shah of Johor. Built around 1824-1826, it was located near Sultan Hussain Shah's palace. The re-construction work to include an annexed double-storey building to house a large prayer hall and its characteristic large onion-shaped dome was completed in 1928. While the rich donated money, the poor collected bottles for the dome's construction. These donated bottles were arranged to form a visible dark ring beneath the dome. Watch the video.

Masjid Sultan, at Muscat Street and North Bridge Road
within the Kampong Glam district of Rochor Planning Area, Singapore.

Masjid Sultan is located in the heart of the Muslim district in Kampung Glam area. This mosque was entrusted to the Malays, Javanese, Bugis, Arabs, Tamils and Northern Indian Muslims who lived around the Kampong Glam area in the past. Owned and managed by Majlis Ugama Islam Singapura (MUIS) now, it became a preserved historical building in 1975 by the Preservation of Monuments Board Act, Singapore. It is now open to tourists.

Sultan Hussein did not pursue any active claim to his sovereignty rights over Johor, even after Temenggong Abdul Rahman died in 1825, and his successor, Temenggong Ibrahim was still a youth at the time of Temenggong Abdul Rahman's passing.

Sultan Hussein and Istana Kampong Gelam -> moved to Malacca -> died & buried in Masjid Tranquera

Sultan Hussein spent much of his time at his Singapore residence in Istana Kampong Glam until 1834, when he moved to Malacca. Reports cited that he was a dispirited man, apparently with the lack of power and authority that he should be accorded as the Sultan. Sultan Hussein later died in September 1835, and was buried in Masjid Tranquera at the wishes of his Sultanah and Abdul Kadir, a Tamil-Muslim Imam.

Istana Kampong Gelam

In Singapore today, only Sultan Hussain's palace and the palace gates remain of that glorious past (communicated to the author, Feb 2011). The palace now houses the Singapore Malay Heritage Society. His palace was relocated to Johor Baru and the Johor Sultanate continued (under the Temenggong Dynasty) at the new place while the British took over Singapore.

Stamford Raffles, Governor of Bencoolen in 1818

In 1818, Sir Stamford Raffles was appointed as the governor of Bencoolen on western Sumatra. He was to look for a better trading post for the British.

Raffles arrived in Singapore in 1819

Raffles' expedition arrived in Singapore on 29 January 1819. He discovered a small Malay settlement at the mouth of Singapore River headed by a Temenggung (governor) of Johor. Though the island was nominally ruled by the sultanate, the political situation there was extremely murky. The incumbent Sultan, Tengku Abdul Rahman, was under the influence of the Dutch and the Bugis and would therefore never agree to a British base in Singapore.

Raffles dealt with Hussein Shah

Upon learning of the political tensions in Johor, Raffles made a deal with Hussein Shah. Their agreement stated that the British would acknowledge Hussein Shah as the legitimate ruler of Johor, and thus Tengku Hussein and the Temenggung would receive a yearly stipend from the British. In return, Tengku Hussein would allow Raffles to establish a trading post in Singapore. This treaty was ratified on 6 February 1819.

Raffles selected Sultan Hussain Shah of Johor as the Ruler of Singapore. In 1819, Singapore was ceded to the British and in return, the Sultan and his Temenggong were each paid a stipend.

Anglo-Dutch Treaty 1824

With the Temenggung's help, Raffles managed to smuggle Hussein Shah, then living in exile on one of the Riau Islands, back into Singapore. The Dutch were extremely displeased with Raffles' action. Tensions between the Dutch and British over Singapore persisted until 1824, until they signed the Anglo-Dutch Treaty. Under the terms of that treaty, the Dutch officially withdrew their opposition to the British presence in Singapore. The treaty has the effect of carving the Johor Empire into two spheres of influence; modern Johor under the British and the new Sultanate of Riau under the Dutch. The treaty was concluded in London, between the British and the Dutch, effectively break up of the Johor-Riau Empire into two. - Wikipedia

Monday, 21 February 2011

The Legacy of Sumatran Trade and Knowledge Networks in Penang

Chapter 2  The Legacy of Sumatran Trade and Knowledge Networks in Penang
by Abdur-Razzaq Lubis
pages 67-96
In: Straits Muslims: Diasporas of the Northern Passage of the Straits of Malacca
Editor - Wazir Jahan Karim, 2009
ISBN: 978-983-44034-0-9

"...the Acehnese-Arabs called their settlement Kampong Melayu and was translated as 'Malay Town' by the British carthographers." (page 67)

Abdur-Razzaq Lubis:

King George VI & Queen Elizabeth II

British Monarchs
King George VI
Queen Elizabeth II (6 Feb 1952-present)
The Queen's Coronation was held on 2 June 1953

Some of the early Malay doctors were undergoing their postgraduate studies at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, and they had witnessed the Queen's Coronation.

The 1st & 2nd batches of the Malayan teachers who attended the Malayan Teachers' Training College at Kirkby, near Liverpool, England had witnessed the Queen's Coronation and often relate this wonderful occasion to their children, who then relate the story to their children.

Queen Elizabeth II is much admired by her citizens including those from previous British colonies which are now categorised as the Commonwealth countries. Many have never met her in person. She is admired for her grace and beauty. She also gives very good speeches. British English or "Queen's English" is named in her honour. She is the longest reigning monarch in British history, and with her husband, are the only pair of British monarchs who became octogenarians (beyond age 80).

She was proclaimed queen on 6 February 1952 upon the death of her father, George VI, and crowned on 2 June 1953. 

Elizabeth II succeeded to the British throne in February 1952 upon the death of her father, George VI.  Primogeniture, the passing of the throne to the eldest son when a monarch dies, has been the rule of succession, and when there are no sons, the eldest daughter ascends the throne. This was the case when Elizabeth II succeeded to the throne in February 1952 upon the death of her father, George VI. Her husband, Prince Philip, has the title of Prince Consort, but no rank or privileges. The current heir to the throne is Elizabeth II’s eldest son, Charles, Prince of Wales. The second heir in line is  Prince Charles' eldest son, Prince William, who weds on Friday, 29 April 2011 to Kate Middleton at Westminster Abbey in London, England.

Sir William Dargie had painted a beautiful portrait of HM QEII in 1954.


Saturday, 19 February 2011

Melayu Cape di Afrika Selatan

Title (Judul): Melayu Cape di Afrika Selatan
Authors (Penulis): Wan Hashim Wan Teh, Hanapi Dollah
Publisher (Penerbit): DBP
ISBN: 9789834603120
Year Published (Tahun Terbitan): 2010
Language: Malay (Bahasa Melayu)


Why did the Malays travel westward? To where?
Did they get to their destination? Why? What happened?
How did the Malays get to South Africa? Why the Cape?
When did this westward travel begin?

The 16th generation of Cape Malays live in South Africa today.
How can we tell that they are descended from the Malays in Tanah Melayu?
Can they speak Malay?

Answer: Do genetic studies. They can recognise the curry puffs (karipap) but they cannot speak Malay.

What does the "karipap" look like? Please visit Sri Talamaz - it was featured on TV3.

Friday, 18 February 2011

Moji, Japan

Moji in Fukuoka, Japan

Moji is on the same island as Nagasaki. It is half-way between Nagasaki  in the south and Hiroshima which is on the bigger island north of Moji.

Moji is the first section one reaches if crossing the Kamon Strait to reach Kyushu from Honshu. Moji and Shimonoseki are connected by a large bridge, linking the two islands of Kyushu and Honshu. The most popular destination in Moji is Mojiko, "Retro Town," which is a charming historical port. There are several cafes with outdoor seating which lend to atmosphere. Visitors can see where Einstein stayed while he visited the area and enjoy the Meiji period architecture of several buildings. While here, it is recommended to take a boat across the Kamon Strait to enjoy some Fugu in Shimonoseki.


Thursday, 17 February 2011

History of Darjeeling District, India

Darjeeling in Bhagalpur, Bengal ... is north of Calcutta, near the Himalayas

The name Darjeeling is a composition of 'dorje' meaning 'thunderbolt' and 'ling' meaning 'place' ... 'the Land of Thunderbolt'.

From 1911 Encyclopedia:
DARJEELING, a hill station and district of British India, in the Bhagalpur division of Bengal. The sanatorium is situated 367 m. by rail north of Calcutta. In 1901 it had a population of 16,924. It is the summer quarters of the Bengal government and has a most agreeable climate, which neither exceeds 80° F. in summer, nor falls below 30 in winter. 

The great attraction of Darjeeling is its scenery, which is unspeakably grand. The view across the hills to Kinchinjunga discloses a glittering white wall of perpetual snow, surrounded by towering masses of granite

There are several schools of considerable size for European boys and girls, and a government boarding school at Kurseong

The buildings and the roads suffered severely from the earthquake of the 12th of June 1897. But a more terrible disaster occurred in October 1899, when a series of landslips carried away houses and broke up the hill railway. The total value of the property destroyed was returned at X160,000.

The district of Darjeeling comprises an area of 1164 sq. m. It consists of two well-defined tracts, viz. the lower Himalayas to the south of Sikkim, and the tarai, or plains, which extend from the south of these ranges as far as the northern borders of Purnea district. The plains from which the hills take their rise are only 300 ft. above sea-level; the mountains ascend abruptly in spurs of 6000 to 10,000 ft. in height. The scenery throughout the hills is picturesque, and in many parts magnificent. The two highest mountains in the world, Kinchinjunga in Sikkim (28,156 ft.) and Everest in Nepal (29,002 ft.), are visible from the town of Darjeeling.

From Encyclopedia Britannica:
Darjiling, also spelled Darjeeling, Tibetan Dorje-lingcity, extreme northern West Bengal state, northeastern India. Darjiling lies about 305 miles (490 km) north of Kolkata (Calcutta). The city is situated on a long, narrow mountain ridge of the Sikkim Himalayas that descends abruptly to the bed of the Great Rangit River. Darjiling lies at an elevation of about 7,000 feet (2,100 metres). On a clear day the city affords a magnificent view of Kanchenjunga (28,169 feet [8,586 metres]), and Mount Everest can be seen from a nearby viewing point. 

The name of the city means “Place of the Thunderbolt.” 

Darjiling was ceded by the raja of Sikkim to the British in 1835 and was developed as a sanatorium for British troops. It was constituted a municipality in 1850. 

The Chaurastha (“Four Roads”) district encompasses the Mall, where the roads converge; it is the city’s main shopping centre and the most attractive promenade.  

Observatory Hill, Darjiling’s highest point (7,137 feet [2,175 metres]), is crowned by Mahakal Temple, which is sacred to both Hindus and Buddhists. 

Birch Hill contains a natural park and the Himalayan Mountaineering Institute. 

The Lloyd Botanic Gardens, well-known for their varieties of Himalayan flora, were laid out in 1865. 

Besides these attractions, Darjiling has a zoo, a natural history museum, and a racecourse. 

It is well-known for its residential schools, and there are several colleges affiliated with the University of North Bengal (founded 1962) in and around the city.

The area in which Darjiling is situated receives plentiful rainfall and has a wide range of climates, from tropical to subalpine, owing to its varying elevations. 

Local coniferous and oak forests yield valuable timber. The local rural economy is based primarily on tea, which is plantation-grown up to elevations of 6,000 feet (1,800 metres). Other crops are rice, corn (maize), cardamom, and wheat. Pop. (2001) 107,197.

Get in
Darjiling is a noted hill resort, and the city’s economy is based largely on tourism; the peak periods for visitors are April to June and September to November. The city has major road, rail, and air connections with Kolkata.  

By plane
The nearest airport is Bagdogra, near Siliguri, 96 km from Darjeeling.
Air India (fomerly Indian Airlines), India's largest airline, has flights from:
  • Delhi - IC 880 (Tu/Th/Sat) and IC 879 (Mon/Fri - via Guwahati)
  • Guwahati - IC 879 (Mon/Fri)
  • Kolkata - IC 721 (Tu/Th/Sat)
Jet Airways, a private airline, has flights from:
  • Delhi - 9W 601 (Mon/Wed/Fri - Via Guwahati) and 9W 602 (Tu/Th/Sat/Sun)
  • Guwahati 9W 601 (Mon/Wed/Fri)
  • Kolkata 9W 617 (Daily)
Spice Jet also operates flights from Kolkata & Delhi.
Air Deccan also known as Kingfisher red, runs budget flights to and from Bagdogra from Delhi, Guwahati and Calcutta.
Indigo has also started direct/indirect flights to & from Delhi and Guwahati since April, 2009 end.
Druk Airways has also commenced direct flights to & from Paro as well as Bangkok, twice a week for both destinations
All other cities major cities can be accessed by taking a flight to Delhi/Kolkata and connecting.


Singapore Arabs

Raffles opened Singapore in 1819 and brought in the Arabs for trade. The Singapore Arabs came mainly from Hadramut in South Yemen (Selatan Yaman) who were already traders in Yemen.

Many Singapore Arabs also came from Indonesia, mainly from Java and Sumatra. Among the famous Indonesian Arabs who migrated to become Singapore Arabs included the Aljunaid, Alsagoff and Alkaff clans. These three clans were rich and famous as they owned businesses and lands in several parts of Singapore.

Beside trading, the Singapore Arabs built mosques and helped spread the teachings of Islam. Singapore has 59 mosques.

Link to YouTube video on The Arabs of Singapore.

The Singapore Arabs were very wealthy. Some were Sheikh Haji. The Singapore Arabs could afford to rent up to four steamships (kapal wap) for the hajj pilgrimages. There was once when the Indonesian pilgrims (jemaah) could not return to Indonesia as the Dutch East India colonial government had prevented their re-entry. The pilgrims were thus retained in Singapore and boarded the homes of the rich Indonesian Singapore Arabs.

Syed Ahmad Alsagoff was the Singapore Ambassador to Turkey. His mansion was named Constantinople Estate.

Syed Ibrahim Alsagoff was the Arab Consular to Singapore. He founded Madrasah Alsagoff.

Syed Ahmad bin Muhammad (of Alsagoff clan) married to Hajjah Fatimah, a rich Bugis princess. They had a son named Muhammad who was nicknamed Nungcik. Syed Muhammad Alsagoff's eldest daughter was Sharifah Badriah who owned the entire row of houses in Arab Street.

Hajjah Fatimah founded Masjid Kampung Glam in Singapore. Kampung Glam developed into a busy trading place. There were people smoking shisha (hookah) which contained aromatic herbs and smoke.

The Alkaff clan owned hundreds of rented houses in Kampung Kwitang in central Jakarta. In Singapore, they owned lands and lavish houses which have been turned into recreational parks, restaurants and botanical gardens.

Muhammad bin Abdurrahman Alkaff was the first Alkaff to arrive in Singapore from Java but he later died. His brother, Shaikh Alkaff succeeded him and managed the Alkaff lands in Indonesia, Singapore and Hadramaut. However, the Alkaff lands in Singapore were forcibly taken away by the Singapore Prime Minister, Lee Kuan You (LKY) at very low price. Their lavish homes were taken over by ABRI at the time of the Konfrontasi between Indonesia and Malaysia. The Alkaff clan founded the Masjid Alkaff in Kampung Melayu in Singpore.

After WWII, the business and economy of the Singapore Arabs declined but their madrasah (religious schools) continued to build up and gained international recognition and fame.

Ali bin Muhammad Jamalullail, dari anak cucunya menurunkan Keturunan leluhur Al-Qadriy, Al-Assry, Al-Baharun, Al-Junaid.

As the Alsagoff and Alkaff had done, the Aljunaid built Madrasah Aljunaid near the Muslim community of Kampung Glam in Singapore.

Lulusan madrasah ini banyak dibiayai oleh Al-Azhar University di Kaherah . Madrasah ini memiliki 1,200 murid dari TK sampai SLTA. Di madrasah ini pemerintah Singapura yang sekular mengizinkan para siswinya untuk berjilbab, dan prianya berkopiah hitam.


Wednesday, 16 February 2011

Global Security and the Threats of World Wars

Global Security provides up-to-date US military news online. It is a useful website for studying casualties of past wars and to try and avoid such casualties in future wars (na'u zubillahi min zaalik). The other useful website is the CIA website that has health data and statistics of all the world's communities.

Doctors have served as military personnels in times of war and preparedness for war is something we don't teach at medical schools. For our students who wish to assist in war-torn regions of this globe, I would suggest that you read on the causes of past wars and try to understand how we can possibly avoid conflicts and any sort of war. Any war is likely to cause injury and death,. Death of innocent victims is not an excuse for medical staff to sit back, turn a blind eye, and not express themselves publicly. 

I will honestly say, that we actually don't need any war today. Wars are a thing of the past, avenues of the past, vents for those who never learned and never want to exit the Dark Ages nor leave their dirty actions altogether. Those who committed wars are hyenas and dingos, definitely not humans We are intelligent human beings and we have brains that make our actions humane. We should fully utilise our brains and be able to cap tension from arising, crack conflicts from striking and halt wars from happening. The only avenue to save this world from further rot is to listen to academics, the public at large and the poor masses (the bottom billion have-nots). Communication is a bilateral process; war is single strike.

World War I (WWI) commenced on 6 April 1917 and ended on 11 November 1918. It was localised to Europe. Hence, Malaya was not directly affected but there are evidences from narrations communicated to the author (even though antibiotics were still undiscovered), especially the field of professional medical training.

World War II (WWII) commenced on 7 December 1941 and ended abruptly on 14 August 1945 with the bombing of two Japanese cities, Hiroshima and Nagasaki. This war occurred globally and affected many countries worldwide. Malaya suffered terribly during WWII when it came under the Japanese Occupation. We can still hear many WWII stories from Malayan survivors of that horrific era. The WWII museums also depict the artifacts and happenings of this ugly indescribable war. But we should not forget, that the first antibiotic, penicillin, came into use almost at the close of WWII. 

Since antibiotics only became commonplace after WWII, one should expect stories about infant deaths, childhood deaths, teenage deaths and early deaths of young adults in our medical history, prior to 1945 . The medical situation improved after WWII. WWII was in fact a turning point for medicine. The many drugs we see today are postwar discoveries and have rather short trialling periods. Some drugs are not fully tested for long-term effects and their safety status remain unknown to doctors and patients.


Tuesday, 15 February 2011

Salam Maulidur Rasul 1432H

To do good is not only our greatest duty, but should be our greatest interest.

Carry a heart that never hates. Carry a smile that never fades. Carry a touch that never hurts.

We do not remember days; we remember moments.

May peace reign in this world, before we shift to the next world.

Salam Maulidur Rasul

Saturday, 12 February 2011

Masjid Melayu (Jamek) Lebuh Acheh, Georgetown, Penang

It is popularly known as Masjid Acheh. It was founded in 1808 (after Masjid Kapitan Keling was built). The philanthropist was Tengku Syed Hussain Idid, who donated his land (wakaf). His grave is at the rear/kiblat side of the masjid. The compound houses Masjid Acheh, 2 big old wooden houses (one is not used), an old kampung house on stilts with ceramic roof tiles & walls painted black. There are a few blocks of modern townhouses which border the front entrance of the grounds. There are two major entrances to the grounds, one on Lebuh Acheh directly faces the minaret, and the other is nearer the ablution venue. There are passages/alleys in between the blocks of townhouses.

More photos of Masjid Acheh in my Facebook album.

Wednesday, 9 February 2011

Masjid Sultan, Singapore

3 Muscat Street, Singapore 198833 +65 6293 4405
1 N Bridge Rd, Singapore +65 6293 4405

View Larger Map

Tuesday, 8 February 2011

Masjid Khadijah in Singapore

583 Geylang Road, Singapore 389522
Tel: +65 6747 5607   Fax: 65-6747 5929

View Larger Map

Two names are recorded at the Masjid Khadijah website:
1. Dr Hafeezuddin Sirajuddin Moonshi
2. Chishty S.A. Saleem 

Who was "Chishty S.A. Saleem"?
Syed Saleem Chishty and Syed Ahmad Chishty were the grandsons of Dr HS Moonshi.

Syed Saleem Chishty passed away in 2001 and Syed Ahmad Chishty passed away in 2010.

Accessed website: 13 February 2009

Moinudeen Chishty


Kapitan = headman (Malay, ketua)

Kapitan Kling refers to Cauder Mohideen / Kader Mydin / Kadir Merican of George Town, Penang.
He was responsible for the construction of Masjid Kapitan Keling.
The hot & spicy Kari Kapitan served in Penang is named in his honour.
His younger brother is Noordin Merican (sometimes written as Merican Noordin)
The Bangunan Noordin within the grounds of Masjid Kapitan Keling is named after Cauder's younger brother, Noordin.

Kapitan China refers to Yap Ah Loy of Kuala Lumpur. He was a mining tawkey and was responsible for the development of early KL.

Kapitan Melayu refers to Tengku Syed Hussain Idid (sometimes spelled as Aidid) of Kampong Melayu, Acheen Street (Lebuh Acheh), Penang, an Acehnese prince who donated (wakaf) his land for the construction of Masjid Melayu (Jamek) at Malay Town in Penang.

Siam/Thai, Malay and Kelantan/Klate

There are many words which the Malay language and Kelantan accent (Klate) share with Siamese or the Thai language. Malay and Siam/Thailand history have a lot of things in common. Thai words are on the left.

Chana = Chenok

Thepa = Tiba

Saba Yoi
Saba Yoi = Sebayu

Nong Chik
Nong Chik = Nong Chik, a male name

Hat Panare
Hat = had, boundary or limit
Panare = Penarik

Sai Buri
Sai Buri = Telube or Selindung Bayu(?)

Yaring = Jambu(?); jering or buah jering is a fruit used by the Malay people for controlling diabetes

Kapho = Kapur(?)

Hat Talokapur
Hat = had, boundary or limit
Talokapur = Teluk Kapur means chalk cove

Hat Khae Khae
Hat = had, boundary or limit
Khae Khae = gege (Klate) means loud noise or noisy

Palas Market
Palas = palas is a small palm. The young unopened palas fronds (daun palas) are used for making a triangular festive delicacy called ketupat tiga segi

Patatimo Village
Patatimo = Patatimo (Klate) or Pantai Timur means east coast

Yarang Ancient Town 
Yarang Ancient Town is thought to be the ancient kingdom of Lanka Suka
Yarang refers to jambu(?) or jering

Ra-ngae = Legeh



Origin of Satun

Satun or Sentul could have originated from the word sentol, seto (Klate) which refers to the yellow mangosteen-like fruit with thick furry skin which contains a sticky thick white latex. The white flesh (pulp) is eaten fresh or the entire fruit with skin removed is preserved as jeruk seto.


History of Satun

Satun is one of the four provinces of Thailand which have a Muslim majority: 67.8% are Muslim and 31.9% are Buddhists. Most of the Muslims have some ethnic-Malay ancestry, though only 9.9% of the population claims to be ethnically Malay. The Malay dialect used in Satun is distinctly different from Pattani Malay and is much closer to the Kedah dialect of Malay, with a significant admixture of Thai influences.

Since Satun had belonged to the Kedah Sultanate, which had a strong relationship with both Ayutthaya and Siam under the Chakri dynasty, its Malay Muslims commonly intermarry with Thai Buddhists without serious religious hesitation. This custom has created a distinct social group known as Samsam, meaning a mixed person. Most Samsams, if not all, are Muslims.

Unlike the other Muslim majority provinces in Thailand, Satun does not have a history of political confrontation with the central power in Bangkok or of tension with the Buddhist population which makes up the majority of Thailand as a country. Malay Muslims in Satun are substantially assimilated and rarely sympathise with separatism from Thailand, in contrast to the Malay Muslims in Pattani, Narathiwat and Yala. 

Satun Cuisine

Bunga Kuda - A Malay traditional dessert common in Satun, Thailand and in Perlis, Malaysia.
(Wikipedia pic)
Governors of Satun

  1. Phya Phuminatphakdi (Kuden bin Kumae) was the Governor of Satun from 1898 to 1916.
  2. Phya Samantaratburin (Tui bin Abdullah) was the Governor of Satun from 1914 to 1932.

Kuden bin Kumae
Phya Phuminatphakdi (Kuden bin Kumae) was the Governor of Satun from 1898 to 1916.
Phya Phuminatphakdi (Kuden bin Kumae)?

Phya Phuminatphakdi (Kuden bin Kumae)?
Ku Din Ku Meh (from Amir Azahari Al-Saadi in Facebook)
Ku Din Ku Meh was born in 1848 at Anak Bukit. At age 14, he worked as a Prison Warder for Kedah. He was fluent in Malay and Thai. He wrote many books on law circa 1894. His wrote in Jawi. He was the Governor of Satun or High Comissioner of Setul (Satun). His book are kept at the Thai National Archives in Bangkok.

Tunku Kudin (from Wan Mohd Nasserudin bin Wan Noordin or Ayah Wan Merican Noordin in Facebook - deceased 19 Dec 2014)

Tengku Baharuddin @ Tunku Mohd Radin @ Tunku Mat Radin @ Tengku Kudin @ Tunku Kudin @ Kuden, was the Governor of Satun and owned Kuden Mansion in Satun, southern Thailand. 

Tengku Kudin married Siti Kalthum AlHabshee and their daughter was Tunku Rahimah Tunku Mohd Radin @ Tengku Besar Rahmah.

 Tengku Baharuddin @ Tunku Kudin.
(Photo from Wan Mohd Nasserudin.)
Ku-den Mansion (Satun National Museum)

Ku-den Mansion was the official residence of Phya Phuminatphakdi, the Governor of Satun from 1898 to 1916. It was later used as an official residence for guests, then Japanese army headquarters in the Second World War, a municipal office, the City Hall, the District Office, the school building of Satun Municipality and the Office of the Internal Security Operation Center (ISOC), respectively. The style of the mansion is a combination of European architecture and Islamic art.

The building was originally built to be a royal palace for King Rama V on his visit to the South, and an official reception house for important guests. Its construction was completed in 1902, and commonly called as ''Kuden Mansion,' after the name of the ruler of Satun, Kuden bin Kumae (Phraya Phuminatphakdi).The building was used as a provincial hall and an administration centre of Satun during 1947 to 1963.Villagers thus called it 'Sala Klang Kao' (an old provincial hall). The Fine Arts Department registered it as an ancient place, which was gazetted on 14 February 1989.- Tourism Authority of Thailand.

Kuden Mansion or Satun National Museum.
(Wikipedia pic)
Kuden Mansion or Satun National Museum.
(Photo by Muhammad Nizam bin Omar of Serdang, Selangor in Malaysia, 3 Dec 2014) 
Phya Samantaratburin's house

This house was built as the official residence of Phya Samantaratburin (Tui bin Abdullah), the Governor of Satun from 1914 to 1932. The house was built on high wood piles.


Family Relations
From Wan Mohd Nasserudin bin Wan Noordin. (Ayah Wan Merican Noordin in Facebook - deceased 19 Dec 2014)

Wan Mohd Nasserudin bin Wan Noordin @ Abang Chel (1957-2014)

Siti Kalthum AlHabshee was born to Sheikh Abdul Rahman AlHabshee and Sona Bee. Siti Kalthum was married three times, first to MM Noordin, then her second husband and lastly to Tengku Baharuddin @ Tunku Kudin. Her children with MM Noordin were Che Rajah and Aladin Merican Noordin (Ayah Wan Merican Noordin's grandfather). Her grandchildren were Pak Wan Noordin (Ayan Wan Merican Noordin's father), Noorlaila, Noraini and Khairudin. Noorlaila married to Hamzah and has seven children.

Tunku Rahimah Tunku Mohd Radin @ Tengku Besar Rahmah was born to Siti Kalthum AlHabshee and Tengku Kudin. She married to Dr SM Baboo and had nine children.

From my book, Biography of the Early Malay Doctors 1900-1957
From TEMD research, Dr SM Baboo was Dr Shaik Mohamad Baboo bin Ahmad Albakish (1894-1964), an early Malay doctor in Penang. Dr SM Baboo married Tunku Rahimah Tunku Mohd Radin and had nine children.


External links: 
Syed Zainal Abidin
His house in Gelugor, Penang
Tunku Kudin and Klang War / Selangor Civil War

Monday, 7 February 2011

Pattani / Patani Darul Makrif / Patani Darussalam

Pattani = Patani (in Malay) or Pattani (derived from Jawi: ڤتنا) is pantai ini or pata ni (Klate) and means 'this beach'. Pattani province was previously the centre of the Malay Sultanate of Patani Darul Makrif that paid tribute to the Siamese kingdoms of Sukhothai and Ayutthaya. The Malay Muslims make up 88% of the population of Pattani and they speak the Patani Malay language which is similar to the Kelantan accent (loghat Kelantan or Klate).

Patani Raya, or "Greater Patani" is a term that has been used to describe a region comprising the southern Thai provinces of Pattani, Yala (Jala), Narathiwat (Menara), and parts of Songkhla (Singgora), together with much of the northern part of modern peninsular Malaysia.

Patani is historically similar to sultanates such as Singgora (Songkhla), Ligor (Nakhon Si Thammarat), and Lingga (near Surat Thani).

Patani came under Thai rule briefly during the Sukhothai period, and more extensively during the later Ayutthaya period.

South Thailand Insurgency

Tengku Mahmud Mahyuddin, a prominent Pattani leader and the son of the last Raja of Pattani, allied with the British and launched guerilla attacks against the Japanese during WWII.

In 1945, a petition by Malay leaders led by Tengku Abdul Jalal demanded that Britain guarantee independence for the southernmost provinces of Thailand. At the war's end, the Greater Malay Pattani State (Negara Melayu Patani Raya) flag did fly briefly in Pattani. However, since the British had no power over Thailand, the Thai continued to rule over Pattani, while the British kept Thailand stable as a counterweight to the communist insurgency in Malaya. This led to the formation of several insurgent groups seeking the independence of Pattani.

During World War II, along with the Greater Patani Malay Movement, led by Tengku Mahmud Mahyuddin, another resistance force under the leadership of Islamic scholar Haji Sulong Tokmina also fought against the Japanese. Their stated goal was to create an Islamic republic in Patani, which frequently put it at odds with Prince Tengku Mahmud who wanted to reestablish the Pattanese Sultanate.

Today, the goals and ideas of Haji Sulong Tokmina are still carried on by minor resistance groups interested in creating an Islamic republic. After the war, though, British and Thai policies essentially removed the possibility of an independent republic in Pattani.

Patani separatist groups, most notably the Patani United Liberation Organization (PULO), began to use violent tactics in 2001. There have been suggestions of links between PULO and foreign Islamist groups, such as al-Qaeda and Jemaah Islamiyah. A number of Pattani Muslims are reported to have received training at al-Qaeda centres in Pakistan, and the Pattani insurgents have forged links with groups such as the Moro Islamic Liberation Front in the Philippines and the Free Aceh Movement (GAM) in Indonesia.


A reader gave this link on Patani History

Oath of a Muslim Doctor

The oath of a Muslim doctor is different from that read at most medical schools around the world. The oath is read by final year students prior to graduation. They will swear to do their best as doctors. Below is the oath of a Muslim doctor used at the School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia.

Oath of a Muslim doctor

Source: Academic Office, School of Medical Sciences, USM

Friday, 4 February 2011

Urdu / Sindhi / Arabic / Malay

I = hum, saya, chek, kawe, ana
you = aap, awak, kamu, demo, anta (lelaki), anti (perempuan)

me = saya, ana / dalam bahasa arab, 'me' yg mana kata ganti nama objek cuma ditambahkan huruf 'ya' yang dibunyikan 'ee'/'ii' . Cth : buku saya = kitabii/kitabee

we (all of us) = kita semua, kami, nahnu
they = dia, dia orang, depa, hom/hum
he = woh, dia, si anu, huwa
she = woh, dia, si anu, hiya

yes = ya, na'am (bahasa fasohah), aiwah (loghat/bahasa pasar)

no = tak, bukan, la'
come = datang, mari, ke sini, ke mari, marilah, ta'al
go = jaao, gi, zahaba
let's go = jom, jom pi, jom gi
walk = chalo, jalan, pergi, masyiya
that way = khuruj or khalaj?, hakaza
eat = khana, makan, makae, soru, akala
drink = piyo, minum, syariba
old = tua, tuha, 'ajuz, qadim

in-laws = mertua , al-hamu abuz zaujah/abuz zauj (father in law) = الحمو : ابو الزوجة او الزوج, hamatun (mother in law)= حماة

great grandfather = datuk moyang, tok moyang, tok yae, abul jaddi
great grandmother = nenek moyang, nek moyang, nek yae, ummul jaddi
grandfather = datuk, tok, tok ayah, to'ayah, jaddun, ....sahib (refers to the grandfather)
big grandfather (big grand dad) = dada sab, jaddun kabirun

grandmother = dadee, ninda, jaddatun

father = bab, walid, abi, bapak, pak, papa, abun, walidun

mother = mami, umi, mak, emak, chek, inche, ibu, bonda, ummun, walidatun
uncle = mamu, ami, pakcik, 'ammun, khalun
elder uncle / big uncle = mamu sab, 'ammun kabirun
aunt (aunty) = khala, makcik, bu, 'ammatun, khalatun

son = bayta, anak lelaki, anak, nak, anakanda, ibnun
daughter = bayti, anak perempuan, nak, anakanda, ibnatun
brother = bhai or bai, abang, abe, bae, akhun kabirun
sister = kakak, kak, sis, ukhtun kabiratun
doctor = doktor, tabib, thobibun
prayer = sembahyang, solat, salat, namaz


Contributor for Arabic words:
Noraida Hassan
Pen. Pustakawan Kanan
Bahagian Perolehan
Perpustakaan Hamdan Tahir
USM Kampus Kesihatan
Tel : 09-7671466
Fax : 09-7651823
E-mail :

Please provide more Urdu/Sindhi/Arabic words if you know them. TQ

Also see this website for Arabic terms