Monday, 7 February 2011

Pattani / Patani Darul Makrif / Patani Darussalam

Pattani = Patani (in Malay) or Pattani (derived from Jawi: ڤتنا) is pantai ini or pata ni (Klate) and means 'this beach'. Pattani province was previously the centre of the Malay Sultanate of Patani Darul Makrif that paid tribute to the Siamese kingdoms of Sukhothai and Ayutthaya. The Malay Muslims make up 88% of the population of Pattani and they speak the Patani Malay language which is similar to the Kelantan accent (loghat Kelantan or Klate).

Patani Raya, or "Greater Patani" is a term that has been used to describe a region comprising the southern Thai provinces of Pattani, Yala (Jala), Narathiwat (Menara), and parts of Songkhla (Singgora), together with much of the northern part of modern peninsular Malaysia.

Patani is historically similar to sultanates such as Singgora (Songkhla), Ligor (Nakhon Si Thammarat), and Lingga (near Surat Thani).

Patani came under Thai rule briefly during the Sukhothai period, and more extensively during the later Ayutthaya period.

South Thailand Insurgency

Tengku Mahmud Mahyuddin, a prominent Pattani leader and the son of the last Raja of Pattani, allied with the British and launched guerilla attacks against the Japanese during WWII.

In 1945, a petition by Malay leaders led by Tengku Abdul Jalal demanded that Britain guarantee independence for the southernmost provinces of Thailand. At the war's end, the Greater Malay Pattani State (Negara Melayu Patani Raya) flag did fly briefly in Pattani. However, since the British had no power over Thailand, the Thai continued to rule over Pattani, while the British kept Thailand stable as a counterweight to the communist insurgency in Malaya. This led to the formation of several insurgent groups seeking the independence of Pattani.

During World War II, along with the Greater Patani Malay Movement, led by Tengku Mahmud Mahyuddin, another resistance force under the leadership of Islamic scholar Haji Sulong Tokmina also fought against the Japanese. Their stated goal was to create an Islamic republic in Patani, which frequently put it at odds with Prince Tengku Mahmud who wanted to reestablish the Pattanese Sultanate.

Today, the goals and ideas of Haji Sulong Tokmina are still carried on by minor resistance groups interested in creating an Islamic republic. After the war, though, British and Thai policies essentially removed the possibility of an independent republic in Pattani.

Patani separatist groups, most notably the Patani United Liberation Organization (PULO), began to use violent tactics in 2001. There have been suggestions of links between PULO and foreign Islamist groups, such as al-Qaeda and Jemaah Islamiyah. A number of Pattani Muslims are reported to have received training at al-Qaeda centres in Pakistan, and the Pattani insurgents have forged links with groups such as the Moro Islamic Liberation Front in the Philippines and the Free Aceh Movement (GAM) in Indonesia.


A reader gave this link on Patani History


Phraya Pipit Phakdi said...

Go here to learn more about Patani history.

Faridah said...

Dear Phraya Pipit Phakdi,

TQ for the link to Patani History. I've requested our library to purchase the book so the plight of the Patani people can be highlighted in some of our lectures, for better awareness.

I have personally passed through Pattani on my way to Songkhla and Hat Yai in 1982 with our university's Women's Group.

My first encounter with a Patani lady was in Madinah. My group invited her to our hotel room to ask her about Patani and the gemstones she was selling. I bought a brooch from her as remembrance of that encounter so that I will not forget Patani.

I also met some Patani ladies selling food in Makkah.

I certainly hope that the UN will bring up the issue of Patani's struggle, the land and its people.

My love to the Patani people.

Prof Faridah

Faridah said...
This comment has been removed by the author.
Faridah said...

I have personally passed through Satun on my way to Songkhla and Hat Yai in 1982 with our university's Women's Group.

Kantang Merah said...

That's sound great, Patani people is every where on this planet earth even in Kelatae, some of them owned a prestigious position in Malaysia society in difference space and time but they rarely back home, the first generation of Patani imigrants every where is facing a tuff life in trying to survive while the second generation is in better position and the third generation is forgotten everythings about themselves, I don't mean ....I hate them but it didn't fair while their brothers and sisters in Patani struggling hard to keep their identity survive, anyway some of them came back even count as fourth generation like one my relative in Kedah who carry the family tree paper to locate their relative on the other side of the border as far as Bangkok; the relative who happened to be the Siamese prisoner of war in the late 18th century.
Many more interesting things about the people who survive for centuries under the guns point and the babarism action of the Siamese hegmony.

Kantang Merah said...

The sound is strange about Patani "Darul Makrif"(I never heard, this is the very first time) and the tributaries that sent to Sukhothai from Patani was the Thai style written history that tricked the world, it's not only Patani kingdom that under the Sukhothai suzerainty but from nothern Thailand to Singapore and some Island of Indonesia also become part of Sukhothai greatness. There's a problem with the mentality who written the Thai history-The kingdom of Sukhohai which Thai claimed as their proto-nation was established by Mon-Khmer of the north(is not Thai at all) and a very short duration of this kingdom was collapse even before the establishment and come in to being of Patani Kingdom herself , one side of the Sukhothai stone inscription was adopted later by fanatic Thai historians!. That's the reasons why Kampuchea conflict was never settle down, if there's the mad men in this world built the Palace(Pravihara) on one side of the country and then built the ladder or stair case in another side of another country? and When you want to come to the palace to sleep then you have to ask the permission from another country!is this a common sense? will forever fight with your good neighbors on a non sene issues like you fight the patani Malay people for centuries!in the same reason! and you Thai people who possessed with a very good sense and humor must wake up from polluted and illusioned history to the real world! Please sir!

Faridah said...

Dear Kantang Merah,

TQ for visiting and for following. I would love to hear more from Patani people like you.

Kantang Merah said...

My sister also in SaudiArabi(Makkah), she worked hard to survive with my aunt who had passed away nearly 5 years and now she owned the factories of making Arab dress for men and employed Muslims from India and Bangladesh legally about 40 people. To be in Makkah is to be honored by Patani people, many generations of Patani Ulama studied In Makkah even Hj. Sulong Abd. Kadir who came back and pioneered the fate of Patani people sometime back in the middle of 20th century. My grand father also studied in Makkah came back and established the "Pondok" in Patani, among his pupils; there's the Malay Muslim from Muar of Negeri Johor who invited him to establish the Pondok some where in Muar, Negeri Johor by donating some piece of Land, my grand father tough there for a period of times and came back to died in Patani. In the 1990s my relative who had right to this piece of land was called by another relative who lived in Kedah informed about the land in Muar which under the care of another relative's family, there's the problem! after heavy pressure from my relative in Patani then he told that he sold the land to the Chinese man and money had been spending, "sorry" he said to my relative 'OK' my relative said, I had to go.
Remark: The land was trusted to that relative's grandfather to look after, passed to his father and the last was to him, so the contrast appeared between them on Morality and honesty toward the land of no title deed. My relative came back to Patani with
" Kering Gusi"