Thursday, 23 May 2013

Lunatic Asylum ... Rumah Orang Gila

Malay Names of Places 89
Mis. Fur.
Water-works — High Level Reservoir, Sophia Hill ... ... 1 6
* Wharf — Borneo Co.'s (far end of Tanjong Pagar) ... ... 2 2
* Do. R & O. S. N. Co.'s., Teluk Blangah ... ... 2 5
* Do. Tanjong Pagar .... ... 1 3

A few of the native syces know the English names of places, but the majority do not. A list of the names of the principal buildings and places of interest, in Malay, is therefore appended, to aid visitors in finding their way about the town and island.

Adelphi Hotel ... (English Name.)
Beach Hotel . . . Hotel Tepi Laut.
Borneo Wharf . . . (English Name.)
Botanical Gardens ... Kebun Bungah.
Bukit Timah ... Bukit Timiah.
Cathedral Church of the Good Shepherd ... Greja Pranchis.
Cemetery (Christian) ... Kuboran Orang Puteh.
Central Hotel .. (English Name.)
Changhi Bungalow .. Kompani punya Bungalow, Changhi.
Chartered Bank of India, Australia and China . . . Chartered Bank.
Chartered Mercantile Bank of India, London and China ... Mercantile Bank.
Chinese Protectorate . . . Pikring punya Ofis.
Convent ... Skola Pranchis Perampuan
Criminal Prison ... Gaol.
Esplanade ... Padanq fieeax.

90 Handbook to Singapore.

Fort Canning ... Bukit Bandera or Bukit Tuan Bonham,
Gas Works ... Rumah Api Tempat Minyak Gas.
General Hospital ... Hospital or Rumah Orang Sakit, Sepoy Lines.
German Club ... Kongsee Orang Jerman.
Government House . . . Gebenor punya Rumah*
Government Offices ... Second Gebenor punya Ofis.
Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation . . . Hongkong Bank.
Hotel de la Paix ... (English Name.)
Hotel de Europe ... Punchana Besar.
Impounding Reservoir ... Kolam Ayer Besar.
Kranji ... Kranji.
Ladies Lawn Tennis Club ... Padang Kechil.
Livery Stables ... Tuan* punya Tempat Kuda.
Lunatic Asylum ... Rumah Orang Gila.
Magistrates' and Police Courts ... Polis.
Market ... Pasar.
Master Attendant's Office ... Shahbander punya Ofis or Ofis Khlasi.
Masonic Hall . . . Rumah Hantu. .....(I can laugh at this one! LOL)
Maternity Hospital ... Kompani punya Tempat Lahir
Methodist Episcopal Church . . . Greja dekat Rumah Hantu. ....(LOL)
Mount Faber ... Bukit Bandera, Teluk Blangah.
Municipal Offices ... Ofis Chukei Pintu or Town Hall.
* Here insert the name of the proprietor.

Malay Names of Places, 91

New Harbour Dock ... (English Name) or Pulau Hantu.
New Oriental Banking Corporation ... Oriental Bank or Bank Lamah.
Orchard Road . . . Jalan Besar.
Pauper Hospital ... Rumah Miskin.
Pearl's Hill (Head Quarters' Office) ... Bukit Komshariat.
P. & O. Wharf ... (English Name) or Teluk Blangah.
Police Station ... Rumah Pasong.
Police Station (Central) Rumah Pasong Besar, Polis Lama.
Post Office ... (English Name.)
Presbyterian Church ... Greja Kechil.
Race Course ... Tempat Lomba Kuda.
Raffles Girls' School ... Skola Missy.
Raffles Hotel ... Punchaus Bahru.
Raffles Institution (Boys' School) ... Skola Besar.
Raffles Library and Museum . . . Tempat (or Rumah) Kitab (or Buk) or Tengoh Oamher.
Reservoirs (High Level) ... Kolam Ayer.
Rifle Range (Balestier) ... Tembak Baser.
St. Andrew's Cathedral ... Greja Besar
St. Andrew's Mission Chapel . . . Greja Besar punya Mission
St. Gregory's Church (Armenian) ... Orang Armenis punya Greja
St. Joseph's Institution ("Brothers' School")... Skola Franchis Jautaw


Handbook to Singapore (Internet Digital Archives)

External link:

Piggy ka roomah pasong ... Tuan/Mem punya suka

Rates of Hire for Private and Hackney Carriages, WITH Tables of Distances.

PRIVATE Carriages may be hired from the following Livery Stables: —

F. Clarke & Co., Hill Street.
A. Holley (Lambert Brothers), Orchard Road.
The Straits Horse Repository and Livery Stables — (H. Abrams), comer of North Bridge and Brass Bassa Roads.

The charge for a carriage and pair is $5 per day; for a carriage with one horse $3 per day; there being an extra charge, in both cases, if the carriage is used after 7 p.m.

For more than one day the charges are as follows: —

Carriage and Carriage and pair. one horse.
One month or more, per day 33.00 . . . $2.50
Half month, per day ... 3.50 ... 2.00
One week (7 days), per day 4.00 ... 3.00
Saddle horses can be hired at $2 per day.
[N.B. — These charges are approximate.]

Hackney Carriages may be hired at the following rates (2nd class carriages): —
$ c.
For any distance not exceeding half-a-mile 15*
For any distance, exceeding half-a-mile but not exceeding a mile ... ... 20
For every additional mile or part of a mile 10
* For 3rd class carriages, the rate is 5 cents less. Every gharry baa its charge is clearly marked on the doors.

Rates of Hire for Carriages. 83

Additional Fares: — $ c.

If the carriage is discharged at a distance from the Central Police Station exceeding 2 miles, but not exceeding 3, there must be paid an additional fare of ... 10

If it is discharged at a distance exceeding 3 miles, but not exceeding 4, the additional fare is ... ... ... 20

If the carriage is used between the hours of 8 p.m. and 5 a.m., half the above fares are charged in addition.

Time Rates: —

Any hirer shall be at liberty to engage a carriage for a whole day, and to require the driver to drive any distance not exceeding 10 miles to any place or places within a radius of 4 miles from the Central Police Station, paying for the same ... ... ... ... 1 25*

No driver shall be required to drive a greater distance than 10 miles in any one day, or to remain engaged for more than 8 hours at a time; and no driver shall be entitled to claim as payment for any distance driven or any time during which he may be detained in one day more than ... ... ... ... 1 50*

For every hour or part of an hour during which any carriage may be detained beyond the first half hour of detention, an additional charge is made of ... 10

* For 3rd class carriages, 25 cents less.
Handbook to Singapore, 84

The fare for jinrickshas is 3 cents per half-mile for one passenger for a distance not exceeding 5 miles. At night (9 p.m. to 5 a.m.) an extra cent per half-mile may be charged . A jinricksha may be hired for one day (i.e. , not more than 8 hours, and covering a distance of not more than 10 miles) for the maximum charge of 80 cents, including charges for detention. An extra charge of half the fare is made when there are two passengers.

Visitors to Singapore are warned against the extortionate charges made by the gharry-syces. The above
tables give the legal fares. When a dispute arises, the order to drive to the Police Station (Pergi ka rumah pasong*) will bring the syce to reason, if his charges are exorbitant.

Another trick of gharry-syces is to drive to their destination by a circuitous route, so as to be able to
demand legally more than their proper fare.

The following tables of distances are appended to enable strangers in Singapore to estimate the legal fare payable. t

Tables of Distances

N.B. — The distances in these tables are reckoned from the General Post Office, in the heart of the town, near which are Johnston's Pier, the Exchange, the Singapore Club, the Volunteer Drill Hall and the Master Attendant's Office. The mile-stones on the roads mark the distance from St. Andrew's Cathedral.
I. — Not exceeding half a mile.
* Pronounce Piggy ka roomah pasong.
t When asked the amount of their fare Syces generally answer (Tuan or Mem) punya suka, i.e., "what Master (or Madam) pleases."
^"^a wore than the legal fare should be given.

Tables of Distances.


Banks: —

Chartered Bank of India, Australia and China, Raffles Place.
Chartered Mercantile Bank of India, London and China, Raffles Place.
Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation, Collyer Quay.
New Oriental Banking Corporation, Raffles Place.

Consulates: —

Austro-Hungarian, Battery Road.
Belgian - 1, Boat Quay.
Brazilian, Raffles Place.
Chinese, Hill Street.
Danish - 4, Cecil Street.
Dutch, Battery Road.
German, Battery Road.
Russian - D* Almeida Street.
Siamese - ??
Swedish and Norwegian . . . Collyer Quay.
United States of America, Battery Road.

Hotels: —

Adelphi Hotel, Coleman Street.
Hotel de la Paix, Coleman Street.
Hotel de Europe, Esplanade.

Esplanade and Cricket Pavilion.
Government Offices.

Magistrates' Courts, South Bridge Road.
Police Station (Central), South Bridge Road.
Sailors' Home, North Bridge Road.

"Singapore Free Press" Office 20a, Collyer Quay.
Singapore and Straits Printing Office ... ... Robinson Street.
Singapore and Straits Aerated Water Co. ... ... Robinson Street.
St. Andrew's Cathedral . . . Esplanade.
*"Straits Times " Office . . . Change Alley, Raffles Place.
Supreme Court ... ... Corner of High Street and ...

86 Handbook to Singapore.

Distances. — Not exceeding Half-a-mile. — Continued.

Telegraph Office ... ... Prince Street.
Town Hall ... ... South end of Esplanade.
Town Market ... ... Collyer Quay.

n. — Exceeding half-a-mile, but not exceeding ONE MILE.

Chinese Protectorate ... South Bridge Road.

Churches: —

Cathedral Church of the Good Shepherd (B.C.) ... ... Brass Bassa Road.
Methodist-Episcopal Church ... ... Coleman Street.
Presbyterian Church . . . Orchard Boad.
St. Andrew's Mission Chapel ... ... Stamford Road.
St. Gregory's Church (Armenian) ... ... Hill Street.
Convent of the Holy Infant Jesus ... ... ... North Bridge Road.
Ellenborough Market ... Near New Bridge Road.

Hotels: —

Beach Hotel ... ... Beach Road.
Central ... ... Stamford Road.
Raffles M ... ... Beach Road.
Straits „ ... ... Stamford Road.
Ladies Lawn Tennis Club ... Orchard Road.

Livery Stables: —

H. Abram's Stables ... Brass Bassa Road.
F. Clarke & Co. ... Hill Street.
Maternity Hospital . . . Victoria Street.
Raffles Library and Museum... Orchard Road.
Raffles Institution ... Beach Road.
Raffles Girls' School ... Brass Bassa Road.
St. Joseph's Institution ("Brothers* School") ... Brass Bassa Road.

Table of Distances, 87

in.— ABOVE One Mile.
N.B. — To find the distance between any of the wharves and any of the following places, add to the
figures opposite the name of the place the distance between the Post Office and the particular wharf; except where the name is marked with an asterisk (*), which signifies that the place lies either between the wharves and the town, or in a different direction.

Barracks, Fort Canning (Artillery) ...
Do. Tanglin (Infantry)
•Borneo Wharf (French and German Mail Steamers)
Botanical Gardens
Bukit Timah (Police Station)
Do. (Summit and Bungalow)
Cemetery (Christian), Bukit Timah
ixoacL ... ... ... , , .
Changhi Bungalow
Clyde Terrace Market
♦Criminal Prison ...
Filter Beds, Bukit Timah Road
Fort Canning — Barracks ...
French Consulate, River Valley Road
Gardens (Botanical)
Do. (Whampoa's)
Gas Works, Rochore
General Hospital, Sepoy Lines
German (Teutonia) Club, Scott's Road
Golf Links (Race Course) ...
Government House
Impounding Reservoir, Thomson Road
Italian Consulate, River Valley Road

88 Handbook to Singapore.
Table of Distances — Over One Mile— Cowhnwerf.
Mis. Fur.

Japanese Consulate, 21, Sophia Road 1 5
Kranji Police Station and Pier (for Johor)

Livery Stables — Lambert Brothers' ...
*Lunatic Asylum ...
*Mount Faber
*New Harbour Dock
Orchard Road Market
Do. Police Station
Pauper Hospital (Tan Tock Seng's)
Serangoon Road
*P. & O. Wharf or Teluk Blangah ...
*Pearl's Hill (Army Head Quarters Office)
*Portuguese Consulate, 93, Neil Road
*Prison (Criminal) Sepoy Lines
Race Course, Kampong Java Road . . .
Rifle Range, Balestier, Serangoon Road
Rochore Market ... Selitar,
Police Station and Bungalow
Sepoy Lines
Spanish Consulate, 93, Neil Road . . .
Tanglin Barracks (Infantry)
Do. Club, Steven's Road
Tanjong Katong — Hotel and Bungalow
*Tanjong Pagar Docks and Wharves...
Tan Tock Seng (Pauper) Hospital . . .
Teutonia (German) Club, Scott's Road
Tyersall (H.H. Sultan of Johor), Napier Road
Water-works — Impounding Reservoir, Thomson Road

Handbook to Singapore (Internet Digital Archives)

I need help here because I am uncertain where some of these places were located.


Handbook to Singapore.

Hotels: —

Adelphi Hotel...
Albion Hotel ...
Beach Hotel ...
Central Hotel...
Hotel de Europe
Hotel de la Paix
Raffles Hotel ...
Straits Hotel ...
Tanjong Katong Hotel ...
Union Hotel ...
Victoria Hotel

Livery Stables: — See p. 82.

Post Office —See p. 55.

Teleoraph Office, Prince Street, between Raffles Place and Collyer Quay.

Tiffin and Billiard Rooms: —

Emmerson's Tiffin and Billiard Rooms ... Near Cavenagh Bridge.
Raffles Tiffin and Billiard Rooms ... ... Raffles Place.

1, Coleman Street.
59, Hill Street.
4, Beach Road.
1, Stamford Road.
Coleman Street.
2, Beach Road.
2, Stamford Road.
Tanjong Katong.
North Bridge Road.
135, Victoria Street.

General Stores: —

Ann Lock & Co.* Joseph Bastiani
Geok Teat & Co.
Katz Brothers
John Little & Co.

... 13, Battery Road.
... 5, High Street.
. . 11, Battery Road.
... Kling Street.
... Raffles Place.

* In directing the syce, it is generally enough to say — Pergi ka (here insert name of the firm) punya godown.

Booksellers and Stationers, 81

Booksellers and Stationers: —
Singapore and Straits Printing Office ... Robinson Street.
Kellj and Walsh. ... 5, Battery Road.
John Little and Co. ... Raffles Place.

Printers and Book-binders: —
Singapore and Straits Printing Office . . . Robinson Street.

Newspaper Offices: —

"Singapore Free Press'* . . 20a, Collyer Quay.
"Straits Times" ... Chaui^e Alley. Raffles Place.

Tailors AND Outfitters:—

Chong Fee, Gee Chong &Co. ... 65-67, High Street.
John Little & Co. . . . Raffles Place.
Robinson & Co. ... 23, Collyer Quay.

Dispensaries: —

The Dispensary ... 43, Raffles Place.
Singapore Dispensary . . . 40, Raffles Place.
Maynard & Co. ... 14-17, Battery Road.

Mineral and Aerated Water Manufacturers: —
Singapore and Straits Aerated Water Co. ... Robinson Street.
•* The Dispensary
** Aerated Water Works . . . Brass Bassa Road.
Singapore Aerated Water
% Factory ... High Street

Furniture Warehouses: —

Katz Brothers. ... Kling Street.
Knight & Co. . . Battery Road and Hill St.
John Little & Co. . Raffles Place.
Powell & Co. ... 16-18, d'Almeida Street and Tank Road.

Handbook to Singapore (Internet Digital Archives)

Clubs, Societies, Banks, Consulates

Clubs, Societies, Banks, Consulates, Hotels, Shops, &c.

Clubs: —

Marine Club ... ... Battery Road.
Masonic Club ... ... Coleman Street.
Tanglin Club ... ... Steven's Road — [containing a Ball-room, Theatre, Billiard-room and Bowling Alleys].
Teutonia Club (or German Club) ... ... Scott's Road.
Singapore Club (see under Exchange, p. 48.)

Literary and Scientific Societies: —

Anglo-Chinese Literary Association ... ... Coleman Street (M. E. Chapel).
German Reading Club.
Royal Asiatic Society (Straits Branch) .
Singapore Debating Society.
Straits Medical Association.

Political : —

Imperial Federation League.
Straits Association (Singapore Branch).

Clubs, Societies, &c. 77

Musical: —

Philharmonic Society of St. Cecilia.
Singapore Philharmonic Society.

Religious: —

British and Foreign Bible Society ... ... 46, Raffles Place.
Chinese Christian Association ... ... Prinsep Street Cha]^)ol.
Confraternity of the Blessed Lady of Rosary and St. Francis Xavier ... St. Joseph's Church, Victoria Street.
Society of St. Anthony of Padua.
Society of St. Vincent de Paul.

Sporting AND Athletic: —
Cycling Club.
Ladies* Lawn Tennis Club,* Orchard Road (see p. 52)
St. Andrew's Cycling Club,t
Singapore Cricket Club,J Esplanade (see p. 47)
Do. Golf Club ... Race Course, Kampong Java Road (see p. 56)
Do. Recreation Club ... Esplanade (see p. 47)
Do. Rifle Association ... Balestier Plain (seep. 58)
Do. Rowing Club,§
Do. Sporting Club, Race Course, Kampong Java Road (see p. 66)
Swiss Rifle Shooting Club, Balestier Plain (see p. 58)
* Colours, light blue and chocolate.
t Coloivrs, St. Andrew's Cross on white ground.
X Colours, black and yellow.
§ Colours, light and dark blue.

7 8 Handbook to Singapore*
Sporting and Athletic — contd.
Straits Chinese Recreation Club ... ... Hong Lim Green, New Bridge Road (see p. 55 Note)
Tanjong Pagar Football Association (Chinese)

Masonic: —

District Grand Lodge of the Eastern Archipelago.
Lodge Zetland in the East, No. 508.
Lodge St. George, No. 1152.
Dalhousie Royal Arch Chapter, No. 508.
Rose Croix Chapter, 188 (Mount Calvary in the East, No. 47).
Dunlop Masonic Benevolent Society.
Adullam Conclave, No. 17 (Order of the Secret Monitor).
Singapore Emulation Lodge of Instruction, No. 608 (E.C.).
Star of the East Preceptory and Priory, No. 85.
Eduljee Jamsetjee Mark Master's Lodge.

Between 1875 and 1879, Masonic Meetings were held in a house in Beach Road. In the latter year, the
Masonic Hall (Coleman Street, at the Foot of Fort Canning) was erected. It was then a building of one
storey; but in 1887, another storey was added, which contains a fine hall.

Miscellaneous: —

Association of Engineers.
Masters* and Mates' Association, S.S*
Pilot Club, Tanjong Pagar.
St. John's Ambulance Association.
Singapore Amateur Photographic Society, 53, Hill St.
Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals.
* *


Banks and Consulates. 79

The following is a list of the principal shops and offices which visitors to Singapore may find it necessary to visit.

Banks: —

Chartered Bank of India, Australia and China,* Raffles Place.
Chartered Mercantile Bank of India, London and China, 27, Raffles Place.
Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation, f Collyer Quay.
New Oriental Bank Corporation, Raffles Place.

Consulates: —

Austro-Hungary ... Battery Road.
Belgium ... ... 1, Boat Quay.
Brazil ... ... 28, Malacca Street.
China ... ... Hill Street.
Denmark ... ... 4, Cecil Street.
France ... ... 124, River Valley Road.
Germany ... ... Battery Road.
Japan ... ... 21, Sophia Road.
Italy ... ... River Valley Road.
Netherlands ... ... Battery Road.
Portugal ... ... River Valley Road.
Russia ... ... 1, Cecil Street.
Spain ... ... 93, Neil Road.
Sweden and Norway ... Collyer Quay.
United States ... ... Battery Road.
[N.B. — The Consulates have the flags of the nations they represent flying above their Offices].
* •* Chartered Bank," " Mercantile Bank," " Hongkong Bank," and '* Oriental Bank" (or Bank Lamah) are the names to be used in directing native syces.
f The H. and S. B. Corporation are building new offices at the corner of Battery Hoad and Collyer Quay, opposite the Exchi3.\i<^<^,

Handbook to Singapore (Internet Digital Archives)

Population of Singapore

The Population of Singapore, 72
Handbook to Singapore.

In 1819, when Sir Stamford Raffles landed, the population of the island was estimated as under 200. The foundation of a British trading settlement attracted many immigrants both from China and the Archipelago, so that by 1822, the number of inhabitants was reckoned at 10,000. From that time the population has steadily risen till, according to the last census (1891), the grand total of 184,554 has been reached.* The population is very mixed; few nations and languages are unrepresented. The details of the last census are as follows: — European and American residents 5,254; Eurasians, 3,589; Chinese, 121,908; Malays and other natives of the Archipelago, 35,992; Natives of India and Burmah, 16,035; other nationalities (Arabs, Armenians, Persians, Egyptians, Singhalese, Siamese, Anamese, Japanese, Jews and Negroes), 1,776. It will thus be seen that the Chinese number 66 per cent, of the whole population; but of the 122,000 over 12,000 are Straits born (Babas). About a third of the Chinese are Hok-kiens (45,000). The lingua franca of the Straits Settlements is Malay (see Chap. XV.); which is the language generally used in commerce, and between Asiatics of different races. 

• In 1826, the population was estimated at 13,732 ; in 1831, at 20,000; and 1840, at 39,681; and in 1881 at 139,208.
t These include Achinese, Boyanese, Bugis, Dyaks, Javanese, JawiPekkans, and Manilamen. (See p. 74.)

It is not uncommon to hear two Chinamen, who speak different dialects of Chinese, conversing in Malay. The Malays, though not the aborigines of the Peninsula, were the dominant race when the Europeans first came on the scene.

The Malays

Mr. Alfred Russel Wallace thus describes the physical, mental and moral characteristics of this interesting people. "The colour is a light reddish brown, with more or less of an olive tinge, not varying in any important degree over an extent of country as large as all Southern Europe. The hair is equally constant, being invariably black and straight, and of a rather coarse texture, so that any lighter tint, or any wave or curl in it, is almost certain proof of the admixture of some foreign blood. The face is nearly destitute of beard, and the breast and limbs are free from hair. The stature is tolerably equal, and is always considerably below that of the average European ; the body is robust, the breast well-developed, the feet small, thick and short, the hands small and rather delicate, the face is a little broad, and inclined to be flat ; the forehead is rather rounded, the brows low, the eyes black and very slightly oblique ; the nose is rather small, not prominent, but straight and well-shaped, the apex a little rounded, the nostrils broad and slightly exposed ; the cheek-bones are rather prominent, the mouth large, the lips broad and well-cut, but not protruding, the chin round and well-formed.

"In this description there seems little to object to on the score of beauty, and yet, on the whole, the Malays are certainly not handsome. In youth, however, they are often very good-looking, and many of the boys and girls up to twelve or fifteen years of age are very pleasing, and some have countenances which are in their way almost perfect.''  

The Population of Singapore. 73

"In character the Malay is impassive. He exhibits a reserve, diffidence and even bashf illness, which is in some degree attractive, and leads the observer to think that the ferocious and blood-thirsty character imputed to the race must be grossly exaggerated. He is not demonstrative. His feelings of surprise, admiration, or fear are never openly manifested, and are probably not strongly felt. He is slow and deliberate in speech, and circuitous in 'introducing the subject he has come expressly to discuss.* These are the main features of his moral nature, and exhibit themselves in every action of his life.

"The higher classes of the Malays are exceedingly polite, and have all the quiet ease and dignity of the best-bred Europeans. Yet this is compatible with a reckless cruelty and contempt of human life, which is the dark side of their character.t It is not to be wondered at, therefore, that different persons give totally opposite accounts of them — one praising them for their soberness, civility, and good nature ; another abusing them for their deceit, treachery and cruelty."

"The intellect of the Malay race seems rather deficient. They are incapable of anything beyond the simplest combinations of ideas, and have little taste or energy for the acquirement of knowledge.X Their civilization, such as it is, does not seem to be indigenous, as it is entirely confined to those nations who have been converted to the Mahommedan or Brahminical religions."

Nothing need be added to this description by Mr. Wallace, except that of all the Asiatics in the Straits the Malays are the laziest.

* This last is a characteristic of most Asiatics.
t It need hardly be said that where British influence is supreme these qualities are repressed, and will probably die out from want of exercise.
X This is probably one reason why the Malay literature is imitative rather than original. (See Ch.- X)

Handbook to Singapore, 74

The religion of the Malays in the Straits Settlements and in the Peninsula is Mahommedan. The Brahminical Malays, referred to above, are found in the islands of Bali and Lombok to the south-east of Java, and also in the hill-country of Java. In Singapore there are representatives of at least seven Malay tribes — Achinese, from the north-weat of Sumatra, Boyanese, from Bawean, a small island north of Java ; Bugis from the Celebes ; Dyaks, the savage tribe of Borneo; Javanese, Jawi Pekkans, or Jawi Peranakkans, a mixed native race, belonging to the Settlement,* and Manilamen from the Philippines.

The Malays in Singapore are largely employed in fishing : many take service as coachmen, grooms, gardeners and police. The fishing population live in attap houses built on piles on the sea shore between the high and low water mark; and those for whom dwellings are not provided in connection with their work, live in similar houses built inland.

The Chinese

Chinese characteristics are too well-known to need description here. In Singapore they form by far the largest part of the industrial population, they supply the labour on the plantations, at the docks and wharves; they are bricklayers, carpenters, boatmen, ricksha coolies, market-gardeners, tailors, shoe-makers, bakers, <fec., &c. There are thousands of Chinese shops throughout the town, large and small, stored with goods from all parts of the world. Almost all the domestic servants are Chinese; so are many of the clerks employed in the banks, offices, and stores: and there is a considerable number of prosperous and wealthy Chinese merchants who can hold their own with the European firms. 

* Born in Singapore, not necessarily Malays. Mothers frequently Malay.
The Population of Singapore. 75

Of the different Chinese races there are representatives of at least five in Singapore — Hok-kiens (the most numerous); Hykims, Cantonese or Macaos (these two, especially the former, are mostly domestic servants); Teo Chews and Kehs.* The peculiarities of Chinese architecture and house decoration may be seen in all parts of the town.

The Indians

The various Indian races are very variously employed from the Chitty, or money-lender, to the hack-gharry syce, the dhobi (or washerman) and the coolie. Many Indians are employed as messengers in the offices and shops; some enter domestic service; while others pursue various industries.


The Armenians, Parsees, Arabs and Jews are mainly traders.

The diversity of races, pursuits, languages, customs and dress in Singapore is a source of never failing interest to the observer. The variety of the world is compressed into a few streets before his eyes.

* The Hok-kiens come from Amoy, the Teo Chews from the Swatow district, and the Kehs from the Hakka country ; while the Hylams come from the island of Hainan*

Handbook to Singapore (Internet Digital Archives)

Singapore Hospitals

Malay Name — Rumah Orang Sakit
Places of Worship and Hospitals, 69

1. The General Hospital is a large and airy building at Sepoy Lines, two miles from the centre of the town. Here originally stood the Sepoy Barracks, where troops were stationed in the days of the East India Company. Till about ten years ago, the General Hospital was in the Bukit Timah Road — the building now called the Lock Hospital — but owing to an epidemic scare, the patients were transferred to the Sepoy Barracks, and these soon being found inadequate for local requirements, the present roomy building was erected in 1882.

Two large barrack- wards, 169 ft, by 51 ft., containing 40 beds each, with other smaller wards, occupy the upper storey. A cool verandah runs round the building, and by this and other means the Hospital is kept well ventilated. There are two small female wards in an attap-roofed bungalow, detached from the main building.

The diseases treated in the Hospital are general. The number of patients treated during 1890 was 2,455; of these 2103 were discharged and 73 died.

The nurses at the General Hospital are Sisters from the Convent of the Holy Infant Jesus; and there is but one opinion in Singapore about the way in which they discharge their duties.

2. The Lunatic Asylum is also at Sepoy Lines, on a hill near the Criminal Prison. After the transference of the General Hospital from Bukit Timah Road to Sepoy Lines, the old building was used for some years as a Lunatic Asylum, until the present asylum was ready for occupation. The number of patients received during 1890 was 254.

3. The Lock Hospital in Bukit Timah Road, was originally the General Hospital and afterwards the Lunatic Asylum. It is now used as a Hospital for contagious diseases. It is a low one-storey building, containing two wards, each containing about twelve beds.

Malay Name — Rumah Orang Gila, 70
Handbook to Singapore

4. The Tan Tock Seng or Pauper Hospital, the largest Hospital in the Colony, is situated in Serangoon Road, three miles from town. Founded by the late Mr. Tan Tock Seng, a wealthy Chinese gentleman, in 1844, it was added to in 1854, by his son Mr. Tan Kim Ching, the late Siamese Consul in Singapore, who died in the present year, and in 1887 by subscriptions from the Chinese community. The Hospital has room for more than 600 patients at one time. There are 17 wards in all; twelve of a large and five of moderate size. The building, which has a very pleasing appearance externally, stands in grounds of about 18 acres in extent. 5,891 patients were treated in 1890, of whom 4,319 were discharged, cured or relieved, and 948 died.

5. The Prison Hospital. See p. 49.

6. The Leper Hospital is on Balestier Plain, behind the Tan Tock Seng Hospital.

7. The Maternity Hospital and Out Door Dispensary is in Victoria Street, near Stamford Road, about a quarter of a mile from the Cathedral.

8. The Quarantine Hospital is in St. John's Island in the Singapore Strait, at the Quarantine Station. The Government Grants to hospitals in Singapore, amounted in 1890 to $51,959.10, exclusive of Medical Officers' salaries.

Handbook to Singapore (Internet Digital Archive)

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