Monday, 7 March 2011

The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (LSHTM)

The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (LSHTM) is an affiliate of the University of London. It was established in 1899 as the London School of Tropical Medicine. It became a Royal Charter and was renamed the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine in 1924.

1924 - London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine established by Royal Charter
1899 - London School of Tropical Medicine

LSHTM main entrance

Most doctors continued to do their postgraduate studies at the LSHTM as Malaya (now Malaysia) is regarded a "tropical" country when it is actually a little north of the equator.

Diseases of the tropics are plenty and these have been studied and continue to be studied at the LSHTM. 

After passing exams conducted by the LSHTM, doctors obtained their first postgraduate degree, i.e., Diploma in Public Health (DPH). The duration of study was approximately two years.

Malaya had sent its students to the LSHTM from 1950 onward. The first student who received the Queens' Scholarship to do postgraduate studies at LSHTM was (Tan Sri) Dr Abdul Majid bin Ismail, who became the second Director-General of Health Malaysia.

LSHTM contact address:
London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, 
Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, UK
Tel: +44 (0) 20 7636 8636Location: Bloomsbury, London, WC1, UK

Photo source & credit:

Other information:
Archive: University of London Student Records (1836-1930)

Checking historical data of the University of London Archive

For verification of dates of passing postgraduate exams such as conducted by the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (LSHTM), I had to e-mail the LSHTM and request assistance since I cannot go to London for many reasons (teaching mostly). 

Now, some of the documents are available online and it is worth sifting through the archived data of the University of London to find if there were those whose names were missed in the December 2010 search.

An advantage for searching is to know how the names of the early Malay doctors were spelled, and the approximate year they were at the LSHTM.

Even though data is accessible online by the public under the Freedom of Information Act, some data sets have an 85-year data protection which means I cannot check these particular data sets online. Some data are only accessible if the student or person involved has died.

I e-mailed the LSHTM for assistance and mentioned the urgency. LSHTM was helpful and had responded positively for a search I requested for all the early Malay doctors who could have done postgraduate studies at the LSHTM between 1950 and 1957. A response to assist was received immediately by e-mail just prior to Christmas 2010. By New Year 2011, I had the list of the early Malay doctors who had done their postgraduate studies at the LSHTM.

The Summary Guide for searching the University of London archives is here:

King Edward VII of England

King Edward VII
King Edward VII College of Medicine building in Singapore

Photo credits, snapshots and links:

Milestones of the Faculty of Medicine, University Malaya 1949-1983

-1960 – Malayan Emergency
Ulu Yam Massacre by the British in Selangor
University Malaya was formed by merger of KE VII College of Medicine and Raffles College.
College of Medicine became the Faculty of Medicine when University Malaya was established in Singapore.
University Malaya confers its first Degrees of Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) on 17 graduates. Dr Abdul Majid bin Ismail @ Coco was in this first batch.
Queen’s Scholarship was introduced for KE VII graduates to pursue postgraduate studies at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (LSHTM).
Natrah Incidence (Peristiwa Natrah). Natrah was Maria Hertogh (13), a Dutch girl born in Bandung who married Mansur Adabi (22). Dr Ahmad Ibrahim presided over the heart-breaking case that ensued. He is the son of Dr Mohamed Ibrahim bin Sheikh Ismail, an early Malay doctor (1892-1962).
Construction of a 2-storey building behind the Tan Teck Guan Building for classrooms and labs.
Housemanship was introduced.

Department of Pharmacy, UM Singapore offered its first 3-year course.
31 August – The Federation of Malaya was formed. This was the Malayan Independence or Merdeka. There were 53 Malay doctors with either LMS or MBBS medical degrees. LMS was issued from 1910 to 1949. MBBS was issued from 1950 onward.
University Malaya became 2 autonomous divisions at 2 campuses, one in Singapore and another in Kuala Lumpur. The Faculty of Medicine operated as the Faculty of Medicine of UM in Singapore. An early Malay doctor, Dr Abdul Majid bin Ismail was Council Member of the University Malaya from 1 January 1959-14 May 1987.
Set up of the Postgraduate Medical Studies Committee.
The Singapore division became the University of Singapore and the Kuala Lumpur division became University Malaya. Prof T Danaraj became the first Dean of the medical faculty at University Malaya in KL.
16 September – The Federation of Malaya became a larger country geographically when Malaya, Singapore, Sabah & Sarawak combined to form Malaysia. Malaysia had 2 big sister universities, one in Singapore and the other in KL.
Singapore became an independent Republic of Singapore on 9 August 1965. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA) Singapore was formed in August 1965. Anwar Ibrahim was the Chief Protocol Officer at MFA Singapore. He was the son of Dr Mohamed Ibrahim bin Sheikh Ismail (1892-1962), an early Malay doctor.
Professor Christiaan Neethling Barnard performed the first human heart transplant on 3 December 1967.
School of Postgraduate Medical Studies was formed.
13 May – riots (also referred to as the 13 May Incidences).  The riots occurred in Kuala Lumpur following the results of the election held then. Though political, the actual trigger of the riots remains unknown. A dark moment in Malaysia's history. The Deputy Prime Minister, also an early Malay doctor, Tun Dr Ismail (1915-1973) delivered his address to calm the nation and halt further bloodshed. The killings stopped and Malaysians continued to live as one.
Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM) was officially opened by KDYMM Al-Sultan Kelantan Sultan Ismail Petra on 26 August 1983.

Citation: Milestones of the Faculty of Medicine - UM 1949-1983, The Early Malay Doctors, 2011, Faridah Abdul Rashid, online blog

Milestones of the King Edward VII College of Medicine in Singapore 1905-1948

The Straits Settlement and Federated Malay States Government Medical School was established at Sepoy Lines in Singapore. It offered a full-time 5-year medical course to train doctors in medicine, surgery and midwifery.
The pioneering class of 7 male doctors graduated from the Medical School with a Licentiate in Medicine and Surgery (LMS).
The Tan Teck Guan Building opened. It housed a lecture theatre, a library and a museum.
The first Professorial Chair of Physiology was established at the Medical School.
The Medical School was renamed King Edward VII Medical School when it received an endowment by the King Edward VII Memorial Foundation.
-1917 WW1
The General Medical Council (GMC) of Great Britain recognizes the LMS and medical graduates were registered in the British Medical Register.
Rumah Sakit Daerah was established in Kuala Krai, Kelantan.
The London School of Tropical Medicine and Hospital for Tropical Diseases moved to Endsleigh Gardens in central London.
The Athlone Committee created and named the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine (LSHTM)
The Medical School in Singapore was renamed King Edward VII College of Medicine as it offered tertiary education.
The KE VII medical course became a 6-year course.
The London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine (LSHTM) was made a Royal Charter
The 3-storey College Building with Doric columns opens.
The Dispensary was established in Kota Bharu, Kelantan by Dr Ali Othman Merican & Shaik Hussein Othman Merican (father of veteran athlete Tamin Merican)
/1930 – 7 dental students were accepted by the Department of Dentistry for a 4-year course.
Rumah Sakit Umum was established in Kota Bharu, Kelantan.
The Great Depression in USA.
The McLean Commission on Higher Education proposed the merger of the Medical College with the Raffles College of Arts and Sciences into a university college.
-1945 WW2 (The Japanese Occupation in Malaya)
College of Medicine ceased operation.
The Japanese Military Administration established the Marei Ika Daigaku or Syonan Medical College at Tan Tock Seng Hospital.
Syonan Medical College was shifted to Malacca General Hospital and it ended at the end of WW2. The Japanese used Maktab Perguruan Perempuan Melayu Melaka as their HQ.
WW2 ended; Formation of Malayan Union; British Reoccupation. The Malays opposed the Malayan Union.
College of Medicine reopened in the postwar period and ~200 students resumed medical studies at KE VII.
The Carr-Saunders Commission proposed the formation of a university.
GPMS was formed at KE VII, Singapore.

Citation: Milestones of KE VII, The Early Malay Doctors, Faridah Abdul Rashid, 2011 online blog