Tuesday, 30 April 2013

Hajj Glossary

Things to know about the Hajj and holy cities.

The Muslim pilgrimage to Makkah takes place on 9, 10, 11, 12 and 13 Zulhijjah, in the last month of the Islamic lunar calendar year. All Muslims are expected to make at least one hajj during their lifetime, if they can afford it and are healthy. The cost of performing the hajj today is approximately RM9,500.00. The often italicised English word hajj (spelled with double j) comes from Arabic al-ḥaj (the Great Pilgrimage). A Muslim who has been to Makkah as a hajj pilgrim and successfully performed the hajj rite is known as a Haji (if male) or Hajah or Hajjah (if female). A female pilgrim is called the general call name Siti Rahmah before the hajj and the general call name Hajjah after the hajj. There are 3 ways for performing the hajj - Haji Qiran, Haji Tamatuk and Haji Ifrad. The Umrah is a lesser Hajj.

Umrah means ziarah or visitation. The visitor comes to Makkah for 10-14 days. The purpose for coming is to visit the Kaabah, circumambulate it (tawaf) and perform the sa'ie. It is called the lesser hajj since it is performed just like the big hajj but there is no camping out on the Plains of Arafah, no need to stay a while (mabit) or pick up pebbles in Muzdalifah, no need to camp in Mina and no need to stone the three devils' pillars in Mina. The visitor also visits Madinah to visit the Prophet's mosque and tomb (Makam Nabi). The umrah  is simpler to observe and can be completed during a day's course or performed repeatedly in a day and as many times as a person is able to. There is no limit as to how many times a person can do umrah.

Ihram is the set of garments that pilgrims wear to perform their hajj rites or umrah. For males, the ihram is 2 large pieces of white terry towels or similar. For safety, the men wear a strong green belt to hold the bottom piece so it won't drop. For females, the ihram is their usual prayer garments or telekung. Extra care is taken to properly cover the aurat, including the arms, legs and hair edge. The aurat is body parts which must not be left exposed for the opposite sex to view or enjoy.

The hajj is performed in the city of Makkah and nearby localities. The correct spelling is Makkah and not Mecca. Its esteemed name is Makkatul Mukarramah, the blessed city. Makkah is the holy city for Muslims. Non Muslims are not allowed to come into Makkah. A big signboard outside Makkah directs visitors away from Makkah. Makkah is an ancient city where the Prophet of Islam, Nabi Muhammad SAW was born. Not far away from the Prophet's birthplace is the grand mosque, Masjidil Haram as-Sharif. The Kaabah is inside Masjidil Haram.

Madinah was called Yathrib in ancient times. It has 2 other names. The correct spelling is Madinah and not Medina. Its esteemed name is Madinatul Munawwarah, the enlightened city. The Prophet left Makkah to re-settle in Madinah. This relocation from Makkah to Madinah is referred to as the hijrah. Jews who occupied early Madinah were requested to leave and they re-settled elsewhere. Madinah became the second holy city for Muslims.

The hijrah marks the Prophet's relocation from Makkah to Madinah. The people who moved from Makkah were called the Muhajirin (the migrants); the people in Madinah who welcomed the newcomers from Makkah were called the Ansar (the welcomers). The initial relocation marked the first Hijrah (1 Hijrah). The 10th year after the initial hijrah is 10 Hijrah, The Hijrah thus became the Islamic calendar system which is dissimilar to the Gregorian calendar system.  The Hijrah calendar is a lunar calendar system (with 354 days) while the Gregorian calendar system is a solar calendar system (with 365 days). The days and nights are determined by sunrise and sunset. The lunar months of the Hijrah calendar are based on the movements of the moon (lunar) which are more precise compared to the Gregorian months which are based on the earth's positions relative to the sun throughout the year. It should be known that we cannot use the inexact movements of the sun to note the seasons; the moon movements are exact and are therefore preferred for working out the months, as stated in the Quran. The fasting dates and times for the month of Ramadan, the date of wukuf (hajj) and the celebrations of the Eid and Adha are all based on the lunar calendar system - they cannot be determined from the solar calendar system.

Masjidil Haram
There are two grand mosques, one in Makkah and the other in Madinah. The grand mosque in Makkah is the Masjidil Haram. Its esteemed name is Masjidil Haram as-Sharif. It is also referred to as the Haramain, the forbidden. Marble slabs cover the floor, columns and stairs. It has 100 doors or babs and each door has a number. The main doors also have a name each. Bab-as-Salam (pronounced Babus Salam) is one of the main doors. The doors are gigantic and heavy. The grand mosque undergoes constant expansion. The prayer spaces are marked with concentric rings to indicate where pilgrims must stand for prayers. This creates perfect rings of humans in prayer we often see in photos taken of the grand mosque. The imam stands on the side in front of the Kaabah door, on the first floor.

Masjid Nabawi
The grand mosque in Madinah is Masjid Nabawi or Masjid Nabi. This is a single-storey mosque when viewed above ground. There are separate prayer spaces for men and women. It also has many gigantic doors with names, eg Bab an-Nisa (Babun Nisa) is for women. The Prophet is interred in his own home which is now inside the grand mosque. His grave is marked with a green dome. Pilgrims come to pay a visit to the Prophet's grave in what is known as ziarah (ziyarah) or visitation. Ziarah is performed before or after the hajj. Supplications (doa) and Selawat are read when visiting the Prophet's grave. With each Selawat that is read, Allah SWT removes 10 sins from the reader.

Baitul Lahil Haram or Baitullah or Ka'abah as we know it today. The Ka'abah is a cuboid that sits in the centre of the grand mosque in Makkah. The cuboid is not a perfect cube, just like the egg is not a perfect sphere. The English word cuboid is derived from the Arabic ka'abah, which means cuboid. The Ka'abah is a symbol of the House of Allah SWT, the Most Supreme Creator, who created everything in the universe, including you and me, our parents and ancestors, all the prophets (Nabi and Rasul), Adam and Eve, Jesus (Nabi Isa a.s.) and the other prophets. The Ka'abah was initially constructed by Prophet Abraham (Nabi Ibrahim a.s.) and his son Ismail (later Nabi Ismail a.s.), whose mother was Siti Hajar. The Ka'abah has 4 walls and 4 corners with specific names and features, which are observed during circumambulation when performing the hajj rites. The corners are: (i) Hajar Aswad, (ii) Rukun Iraqi, (iii) Rukun Syami, and Rukun Yamani. Tawaf begins and ends at Hajar Aswad corner. Rukun Iraqi faces Iraq. Rukun Syami faces Syams or Damascus. Rukun Yamani faces Yemen. Pilgrims wave their hands in the air as they pass Rukun Yamani. The left shoulder must face the Ka'abah all the time while circumambulating the Ka'abah. Should the left should be turned away from Ka'abah, then that round of tawaf becomes null and void, and has to be repeated. The Ka'abah is draped in thick embroidered black velvet fabric called the kiswah, which is replaced at every hajj. The Ka'abah has a door and access is allowed for VVIPs but pilgrims can enter if invited. The Ka'abah can accommodate approximately 50 persons who enter to pray as a congregation. The Ka'abah has a semi-circular low perimeter wall on the side where the golden gutter is (up high). The space between Ka'abah and the low perimeter wall is called the Hijir - this was where infant Ismail kicked his feet hard and zamzam water exited and Siti Hajar quickly gathered sand around to contain the water, which we now know it as zamzam water. Zamzam means to contain (the water). Pilgrims must complete tawaf first and then they can enter into the Hijir on the Ka'abah-door side. In the Hijir, they can pray and exit at right and carefully leave the Ka'abah and tawaf area.

The expansive Plains of Arafah lies outside Makkah. Pilgrims gather here before noon on 9 Zulhijjah, on the day of  Arafah called wukuf. Wukuf marks the beginning of the Hajj. When wukuf falls on Friday, then the hajj is called Haji Akhbar, the Great Hajj. Pilgrims try and perform hajj on Haji Akhbar days, if possible. The announcement of the day of wukuf is made by the Saudi hajj authorities and is not known before hand. The pilgrims gather in Makkah or Mina and wait for the annoucement of wukuf so they can then go to Arafah and wait there to observe wukuf. The hajj becomes null and void if the wukuf is missed altogether. All pilgrims have to get to Arafah to start their hajj rite. The pilgrims are dressed in the (generally) all-white ihram (pilgrimage garments) before they perform wukuf.

By dusk (maghrib), the pilgrims are transported by buses from Arafah to Muzdalifah. In Muzdalifah, pilgrims are let down from the buses as they have to stay a while or overnight (mabit) and collect pebbles or little stones to stone the devils' pillars later when in Mina. They reach Muzdalifah at night (pitch darkness) and use torchlights to see the ground and pick up pebbles. Each pilgrim needs 70 pebbles for stoning the three devils' pillars in Mina.

How to calculate # of pebbles required:
7 pebbles for stoning Jamratul Aqabah on the day of arrival in Mina
7 pebbles for each jamrah, and there are 3 jamrah to stone, and stoning is done for 3 days
(7 x 3 x 3) + 7  pebbles = 70 pebbles

Mina is a vast tent city. White fire-resistant fibreglass tents fill the landscape. These tents are air-conditioned and comfortable. Carpets are used to cover the earth. Pilgrims bring their own needed items. Pitching own tents and cooking in the tents are forbidden. Food is provided by Tabung Haji. The pilgrims stay in Mina for 3 days. They walk from their tents through the big tunnel to the stoning arena where they pelt the 3 devils' pillars (jamrah) daily. The time for stoning is carefully chosen so that not all pilgrims go there at once and to avoid overcrowding and possible stampede. The Tabung Haji officers will inform when stoning must be performed. The 3 pillars are Jamratul Aqabah, Jamratul Ula, and Jamratul Wusta. After stoning the three pillars, the pilgrims walk back through a separate adjacent tunnel (they lie side by side) to their respective tents. They last leave Mina at noon on Day 3, to return to Makkah by bus. Some pilgrims know the area (road maps and GPS) and prefer to walk back from Mina to Makkah - it takes approximately 1 hour and 45 minutes to walk back. After the stoning event, the tents are cleared, rubbish is collected and the tents are deserted till the next hajj arrives. Everyone moves back to Makkah. Mina then becomes an empty quiet city once more.

After the pilgrims leave Mina, they return to their hotel rooms in Makkah. They then go to Masjidil Haram where they perform the tawaf. Pilgrims must still possess wudu' (ablution) in order to perform tawaf. Tawaf begins from an imaginary line that stretches from Hajarul Aswad and radiates out to the stairs. There is a dark line on the floor to indicate this and a green light at the stairs. Pilgrims line up at the start line and walk forward while reading prayers to beg Allah SWT for forgiveness. They circumambulate the Kaabah 7 times in an anticlockwise manner, passing by Makam Ibrahim, Hijir Ismail with its golden gutter perched high up on the Kabbah, the three corners of the Kaabah (Rukun Yamani and 2 other), and until they reach Hajarul Aswad, which makes one round or one tawaf. The pilgrims need to circumambulate the Kaabah 7 times as required for the hajj rite. After they complete tawaf, the pilgrims pray behind Makam Nabi Ibrahim a.s. (a golden structure which bears Prophet Abraham's footprints), and then move to the long corridor to perform the next hajj rite called the sa'i.

The sa'ie is the last rite of the hajj. Here, the pilgrims walk the same path that Hajar (wife of Prophet Ibrahim a.s. and mother of Prophet Ismail a.s.) took when she was running desperately to find water for her baby son, (Prophet) Ismail. She ran back and forth, from Safa hill to Marwah hill in search of water. The desperate running by Hajar is what pilgrims today try to imitate and remember her by. Hajar is remembered every year during the Hajj and Umrah. The pilgrims run up and down the length between the 2 hilltops or peaks, 7 times. They begin at Mt Safa and end at Mt Marwah. When they complete the sa'ie at Marwah, the female pilgrims then trim their hair (minimum 3 strands of hair of about 1 inch or 2.5 cm length, or a folded thumb's length) to mark the end of hajj. Male pilgrims prefer to shave their heads bald - shaving bald represents 'dropping all sins' on site and not taking them back after the hajj. The hair on the head is believed to have witnessed all the sins that we did before the hajj. Removing the hair by shaving means cleansing all previous sins committed by oneself. They thus return from the hajj as bald heads or skin heads. The women can trim their hair ends at Marwah or in the privacy of their own hotel rooms; they do not have to shave their heads bald. When the pilgrims have completed shaving their heads or trimming a bit of their hair (females), they have completed their hajj. They can remove the hajj garments (ihram) and bathe and put on fresh clean clothes. They are now called Haji (if male) or Hajah (if female). These prefixes are useful to denote who has/who has not performed the hajj rite. The Haji and Hajah prefixes are not meant for boasting or bragging.

Haji and Hajah 
Haji is the male name prefix or title earned after the hajj. Hajah is the female name prefix or title. These titles or name prefixes indicate that the person has performed the hajj rite, the 5th pillar of Islam. It should not mean that a Haji man is better than everyone else. Similarly, a Hajah lady is no better than everyone else. These hajj titles are preferred choices and not compulsory to use. Many people who have performed the hajj do not use the hajj titles.

Zamzam water is underground water (air zamzam) obtained from the zamzam well in Makkah. The zamzam well now lies buried underneath Masjidil Haram. In the early days, pilgrims could go downstairs to obtain zamzam water and bathe. By 2004, the hajj authorities have closed off access to the zamzam well. By 2010, the staircase to go down to the zamzam well was sealed and the floor levelled. Pilgrims can obtain bottles of free zamzam water outside Masjidil Haram. Free zamzam water is provided inside the grand mosque. Zamzam water is consumed cold or at room temperature; it must not be boiled in the electric kettle as this will create scales since zamzam water is hard water. Zamzam water contains high magnesium and calcium salts. It is therefore good for one's health.

Whenever a hajj rite is missed, the pilgrims must pay a fine called dam. This can be a sheep. The sheep is sacrificed and the pilgrim is set free of binding obligations.


Mabit - Malay definitions by Haji Zul Tiger, 9 May 2013

Mabit di Muzdalifah: berada di bumi Muzdalifah walaupun seketika mulai separuh malam 10 Zulhijjah sehingga sebelum terbit fajar hari tersebut.

Mabit di Mina: berada di bumi Mina pd malam hari Tasyreeq iaitu pada 11,12 dan 13 Zulhijjah.

Tempoh mabit di Mina:

1.Waktu afdal - sepanjang malam
2.a) lebih daripada separuh waktu malam
2.b) memadai berada di Mina seketika sebelum fajar sehingga terbit fajar

Masya'iril Haram
This word refers to the 3 places where the hajj rites take place - Arafah, Muzdalifah and Mina.

Internet photos
MAS hajj flights began in 1974. Pilgrims fly 8 hours from KLIA/Penang/Terengganu to King AbdulAziz International Airport (KAIA) in Jeddah.
Ka'abah is a part of Masjidil Haram in Makkah. Pilgrims circumambulate it (tawaf) 7 times anticlockwise.
The Plains of Arafah where the Hajj begins every year, by performing Wukuf here.
Masjid Namirah in Arafah is used once a year, for Zohor prayer during Wukuf.
Near Jabal Rahmah (hill in the bkgr with a white pillar) in Arafah. Jabal Rahmah was where Adam and Eve were reunited on Earth. Prayers are answered on Jabal Rahmah.
A hajj pilgrim making a prayer atop Jabal Rahmah
Same as above
Two Muaissim tunnels in Mina. The second tunnel was added after the 1990 tragedy (stampede).
White tent city in Mina
Same as above
Stoning the devil's pillar in Mina. There are altogether 3 devils' pillars.

Monday, 29 April 2013

Patterns of the Hajj Pilgrimage in Indonesia, Singapore and Malaysia. Relevance to Migration and Trade

Reasons for the Hajj
  1. Can the Hajj be for other reasons?
  2. Was it a prestige to carry a hajj title in the name?
  3. Can a would-be pilgrim engage in trade and profit?

Early Imperial trade and commerical nature attached to the Hajj
  1. Was there a commercial dimension of the Hajj?
  2. Who owned steamships? Europe - Britain, Germany; Asia - Russia, China
  3. Did the European shipping practice affect the annual Hajj pilgrimage?
  4. What was the effect of European shipping practice on the annual pilgrimage to Makkah?
  5. Was the Hajj tied to any economy? Whose economy? Yes, the steam ship trade of the Europeans.
  6. Did the European shipping trade facilitate the pilgrims' travel to Makkah and back?
  7. Was there intrusion of the Western businessmen in the Hajj trade?
  8. Was there colonial intervention into the Hajj? Yes.
  9. Would Imperial forces trade to their advantage or follow the Hajj needs of the pilgrims and their mass movement? The Imperial forces traded for profit, including the Hajj travels.
  10. Did foreign shipping practices dominate and shape the early Hajj travels? Yes, the pilgrims were transported according to foreign shipping schedules, irregardless of the Hajj schedule. The pilgrims travelled many months prior to the Hajj and many months after the Hajj, whenever steamships were available. Later on the Hajj authorities chartered Chinese registered vessels specifically for the Hajj travels.

Attitudes of the modern Saudis towards commercialisation of the Hajj and commerce in Makkah

When did the Saudi engage in commerce?
When were the Hajj facilities improved?
Who funded the improvements of the Hajj facilities?
Have the improved facilities helped the Hajj pilgrims? How?
  1. The modern Saudi state took its responsibilities towards the Hajj far more seriously, because this
    conferred status and international leadership upon the Saudi kingdom and dynasty.
  2. Yet, until the development of the oil fields after the Second World War, the Hajj was the Saudis’ principal source of revenue, and so for them, too, it was a business as well.
  3. At the turn of the century, civil and religious authorities, including the governor and the sharif of Makkah, evolved a multitude of schemes to fleece pilgrims.
  4. The Saudi government regulated the ancient mutawwifin system and their roles in trade practices.

Is the Hajj a commercial venture?
  1. Is the Hajj for monetary gains?
  2. Is it true that 'the pilgrimage is commercial before it is religious?
  3. Are the would-be pilgrims authorized to draw profits?
  4. Did the would-be pilgrims migrate to earn income?
  5. Did the populace of Makkah live largely off the Hajj? Hotel owners, yes.
  6. Did the pilgrims remain in Makkah as residents after completing the Hajj? No, they have to return.

Role of the guides or mutawwifin
  1. The guides spoke Arabic and acted as go-betweens for the non-Arab speaking pilgrims
  2. Did guides, or mutawwifin (or muallims, as they were known in India), convert the Hajj into a business? What did they sell?
  3. Even though the mutawwifin system was regarded as ancient, the guides were indispensable.
  4. Nearly all foreign pilgrims needed an Arab guide who knew their language and could instruct as to prayers and required rituals.
  5. Guides, moreover, performed a multitude of useful functions.
  6. They arranged meals and lodgings, camel and tent hire to Arafat and Al Madinah (Medina), and the purchase of sheep for sacrifice.

Transportation during the Hajj
  1. What modes of transportation were available for the Hajj?
  2. Muslim companies introduced motor transport in the mid 1920s.
  3. By the 1930s, despite breakdowns, reckless driving and extortion by drivers, a large number
    of pilgrims were travelling between the three cities of Jiddah, Makkah, and Madinah in cars or buses (although many still assigned their luggage to camels).
  4. Reorganized into a Saudi monopoly in the 1930s, the Arab Motor Company was reported to have reaped huge profits from the 1938 pilgrimage.
  5. National Archives, London, Public Record Office (hereafter PRO), CO 273/535/5, 24 Sept. 1927; Records of the Hajj, vii, 117–19 (3 Aug. 1936), 277–81, 287–8
    (29 Aug. 1938).
  6. On the further development of inland transport after the Second World War, see Long, Hajj Today, 48–50.
  7. In shipping, there was always a presence by Persian, Indian and other non-European shipping lines, such as the Shustari Line, the Nemazee Line (registered in Hong Kong), the Bank Misr Steam Navigation Line and, from the 1930s, the Scindia Line.
  8. The Khedivial Mail Line, which conducted the largest share of sea transport from Egypt (one of the big three overseas traffics), was a government company in the late nineteenth century.
  9. British shipping interests purchased it, until, at some point in the middle decades of the twentieth century, it reverted to Egyptian control.
  10. Munro, Maritime Enterprise and Empire, 167, 352–3;
  11. Boyd Cable, A Hundred Year History of the P&O: Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Company, 1837–1937 (London, 1937), 218, 228

Is the Hajj a form of migration?
  1. Whether pilgrimage to Makkah (Mecca) qualifies as migration can be debated.
  2. But the Hajj, often lasting many months, can be likened to migrant labour trends.
  3. Moreover, would-be pilgrims migrated to earn the income to make the voyage, or remained in Makkah as residents after completing the Hajj.
  4. Like those migrants who emigrated for temporary gain, some journeyed for the personal prestige and social mobility accorded to hajjis, as much as for the spiritual experience.

Colonial intervention into the Hajj
  1. Colonial intervention into the Hajj, for political or medical purposes, has, for instance, been well documented by William R. Roff and Faroqhi.
  2. William R. Roff, ‘Sanitation and Security: The Imperial Powers and the Nineteenth Century Hajj’, Arabian Studies, vi (1982);
  3. Faroqhi, Herrscher über Mekka, 234–7.

Makkah dominates as a centre of trade in the Hijaz

Which city was the centre of trade in the Hijaz?
Was it Arafah or Mina?
Was it Jiddah or Makkah?
Was Makkah a significant trading post?
Is Makkah still a significant trading post?
Was trade in Jiddah independent of Makkah or the Hajj?
The Hajj is based on a lunar calendar (354 days).
Maritime trade is based on the solar calendar (365 days) and subject to weather conditions (seasons) and monsoon winds.
Was business in Jiddah compatible with the Hajj in Makkah?
  1. Business and the Hajj have, from earliest times, been intimately interlinked — though to what extent has generated debate.
  2. Pilgrimage fairs gathered in Makkah before the time of Muhammad; but it has been argued that the true site of these fairs was Arafat or Mina, rather than Makkah itself.
  3. McDonnell, ‘Conduct of Hajj from Malaysia’, 1–2; Barber, Pilgrimages, 31–2;
  4. Peters, Hajj, 31.
  5. For Ashin Das Gupta, the early modern Hajj was crucial to Gujarati trade in the Arabian Seas; but Michael Pearson has demonstrated that Makkah was never a significant trading post, that the considerable transit trade that passed through Jiddah was largely independent of Makkah or the Hajj, and that the lunar calendar that determined the dates of the Hajj made it incompatible with maritime trade based on a solar calendar and subject to monsoon winds.13
  6. Ashin Das Gupta, Indian Merchants and the Decline of Surat, c.1700–1750 (1979; New Delhi, 1994), 69;
  7. Pearson, Pious Passengers, 130–84.

Indonesian pilgrims
  1. Suraiya Faroqhi, Herrscher über Mekka: die Geschichte der Pilgerfahrt (Munich, 1990), 237–9; J. Vredenbregt, ‘The Haddj: Some of its Features and Functions in Indonesia’, Bijdragen tot de taal-, land- en volkenkunde, cxviii (1962), 105, 127, 134, 137;

Singapore pilgrims
  1. W. G. Huff, The Economic Growth of Singapore: Trade and Development in the Twentieth Century (Cambridge, 1994), 194–5;
  2. K. G. Tregonning, Home Port Singapore: A History of Straits Steamship Company Limited, 1890–1965 (Singapore, 1967), 117.

Malaysian pilgrims
  1. Mary Byrne McDonnell, ‘Patterns of Muslim Pilgrimage from Malaysia, 1885–1985’, in Dale F. Eickelman and James Piscatori (eds.), Muslim Travellers: Pilgrimage, Migration, and the Religious Imagination (Berkeley, 1990), 116, 123.
  2. Bayly, Birth of the Modern World, 354–6; Vredenbregt, ‘Haddj’, 100–3, 113–22;
  3. Mary Byrne McDonnell, ‘The Conduct of Hajj from Malaysia and its Socio-
    Economic Impact on Malay Society: A Descriptive and Analytical Study, 1860–
    1981’ (Columbia Univ. Ph.D. thesis, 1986), 75–7.
  4. McDonnell, ‘Conduct of Hajj from Malaysia’; 1-2.

Commerce in earlier centuries (steamship business) and Hajj (from company histories)
  1. M. N. Pearson, Pious Passengers: The Hajj in Earlier Times (New Delhi, 1994);
  2. Peters, Hajj. On the modern period,
  3. David Edwin Long, The Hajj Today: A Survey of the Contemporary Makkah Pilgrimage(Albany, 1979);
  4. Vredenbregt, ‘Haddj’, 125–33. McDonnell and Vredenbregt provide some details on recruitment and transport.
  5. Malcolm Falkus, The Blue Funnel Legend: A History of the Ocean Steam Ship Company, 1865–1973 (Basingstoke, 1990);
  6. I. J. Brugmans, Tachtig jaren varen met de Nederland, 1870–1950 (Amsterdam, 1950);
  7. F. W. G. Leeman, Van barkschip tot ‘Willem Ruys’: 120 jaar zeevaart (Rotterdam,

British Foreign Office records of the Asian Hajj
  1. Records of the Hajj: A Documentary History of the Pilgrimage to Mecca, 10 vols. (Slough, 1993), iv, 343–53 (14 Sept. 1900). These volumes are largely a compilation of annual pilgrimage reports by British Foreign Office officials.
  2. C. A. Bayly, The Birth of the Modern World, 1780–1914: Global Connections and Comparisons (Oxford, 2004), 351–4;
  3. F. E. Peters, The Hajj: The Muslim Pilgrimage to Mecca and the Holy Places (Princeton, 1994), 282;
  4. Richard Barber, Pilgrimages (Woodbridge, 1991), 137;
  5. Vredenbregt, ‘Haddj’, 93, 121;

The Business of the Hajj


Pilgrims’ Progress: The Business of The Hajj
Miller, Michael Barry, 1945-
Past & Present, Number 191, May 2006, pp. 189-228 (Article)
Published by Oxford University Press

For additional information about this article
Access Provided by Bangladesh University of Professionals at 05/11/11 8:21AM GMT

  1. Alfred Holt & Co. was also known as Blue Funnel or Ocean Steam Ship. It was the premier British shipping company sailing east to China, Malaya and the Straits Settlements. It was involved in the pilgrim trade in the post-WWII period even though the shipping company was suffering from wartime losses. It faced competition from rising Asian shipping business.
  2. Since the nineteenth century (1800s), Holts steamers had carried Malay and Indonesian Muslims to and from Jiddah during the Hajj season.
  3. In fact, until the Second World War nearly all Holts ships had been equipped to carry pilgrims if necessary, in order to accommodate a traffic with uneven scheduling.
  4. Profits from paying passengers had largely been made on the eastbound voyage, where freight coming from Europe was usually light in volume; but, with respect to the westbound voyage, Hobhouse noted, ‘it would almost always have been possible to fill the space more profitably with cargo’.
  5. In 1948, John Hobhouse, a senior manager of Alfred Holt & Co. began to wonder whether it any longer made good business sense to engage in the pilgrim trade.
  6. In the late 1940s, with Holts still reeling from wartime losses, enjoying a better balance in outbound and homeward cargo volumes, and facing pressure from fading colonial governments to provide superior accommodation and safety facilities, Hobhouse wondered whether ‘the economics of this trade’ did not warrant disengagement altogether.
  7. Advised that this would place the shipping company in very bad odour in the region, especially as Asian shipping would be a far more competitive force in the future, he compromised.
  8. Holts would continue to transport hajjis, but numbers would be limited. ‘The maximum will be fixed from season to season.
  9. Hobhouse’s exchanges highlight two broad themes in the history of the Hajj that are addressed in this article. First, migration in modern times, whether long-term or short, has always been a
    business as well as a movement of peoples.
  10. Steamship companies, railway companies, agents, brokers and labour recruiters turned all forms of migration into big business, and in so doing they provided the organization, means and often initiatives, by which the great transoceanic flows of humanity occurred. Historians of the Hajj have noted the central importance of the steamship, and the creation of better lines of communication, in the development of mass pilgrimage to Makkah during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.
  11. Other factors — changing imperial policies, rising commodity prices, questions of Islamic identity, the prestige and self-justification attached to pilgrimage, and the advance of orthodox forms of Islam — were equally influential in promoting an event that was of immense significance to the cultural identity of its participants and to the unifying processes.

Sunday, 28 April 2013

Islam in SEA

Jurnal Al-Tamaddun, Bil. 4 (2009) 33 – 65

M.A. Rauf
  1. Menurut M.A. Rauf, orang Arab bertanggung jawab membawa Islam ke dalam alam Melayu. 
  2. Beliau menyatakan bahawa kampung-kampung pertama orang Arab Muslim sudah muncul di Sumatera pada tahun 674 M.
  3. Bahan-bahan tersebut menafikan prasangka mengenai sejarah Islam terawal di alam Melayu yang tersebar  di dalam kajian orientalis Barat.
  4. Buku M.A. Rauf  “A Brief History of Islam With Special 
  5. Reference to Malaya” adalah amat penting kerana mengandungi pendapat objektif tentang sejarah penyebaran Islam di Nusantara dan asal-usulnya.

T. Denisova
  1. T. Denisova. “A Step Towards Avoidance of Misunderstanding and Conflict: Uncovering Some Western Myths Regarding MalayIslamic Historical Sources”. (dalam: International Seminar  The Truth of Islam: A Vision for the Ummah and the Rest of the World,  21-22 December 2005 / 19-20 Zulkaedah 1426H).
  2. Asal-usul Islam di Malaya dan ciri-ciri khasnya.
  3. Sejarah pentadbiran penjajahan Inggeris di alam Melayu.
  4. Undang-undang tradisional dan perubahannya pada zaman kerajaan Inggeris.
  5. Analisis kegiatan orang Inggeris dalam bidang agama.
  6. Analisis sistem undang-undang Malaya (termasuk peraturan syariah) pada zaman  penjajahan Inggeris.
  7. Sistem kerajaan dan sistem pentadbiran agama.
  8. Analisis kegiatan Inggeris dalam bidang pendidikan agama.
  9. pengaruh Islam di masyarakat Melayu sebelum tahun 1963
  10. pengaruh Islam dalam proses kesedaran diri orang Melayu pada tahun sejak 1963 sehingga 1970
  11. gerakan dakwah semula Islam dan organisasi-organisasi dakwah (ABIM, Darul Arqam, PERKIM dan lain-lain)
  12. konsep nasionalisme Melayu pada tahun ke-1970an
  13. kegiatan PAS 
  14. konsep kerajaan dan politik oleh Dr. Mahathir Mohamad.
  15. Pada awal kurun ke-20 di antara para pembela hak-hak orang Melayu terdapat ramai orang Muslim, iaitu bukan Melayu, yang aslinya Indian-Arab. Mereka yang mengepalai gerakan tersebut pada tahun 1906-1930an. 
  16. Orang Muslim yang bukan Melayu dianggap sebagai “Melayu” kerana mudah berasimilasi dengan orang Melayu tulen. Mereka berkahwin dengan orang Melayu, berbahasa Melayu dan hidup dalam masyarakat orang Melayu
  17. T.Denisova.  A Step Towards Avoidance of Misunderstanding and Conflict: Uncovering Some Western Myths regarding Malay-Islamic Historical Sources. (dalam: International Seminar  “The Truth of Islam : A Vision for the Ummah and the Rest of the World” 21-22 December 2005 / 19-20 Zulkaedah 1426h). 

Moshe Yegar 
  1. Moshe Yegar menulis bahawa para saudagar Arab yang membawa Islam ke alam Melayu.
  2. Kemudian selepas rumusan tersebut, pengarang menyatakan pula secara betul, bahawa para haji dan syed (bukan saudagar) dianggap sebagai para mubaligh Islam yang paling berwibawa: 
  3.  “The hajj’s … were held in high esteem and were extremely influential through their proselytizing efforts, as reformers and missionaries alike.”
  4. Mubaligh dan murshid–murshid tersebut menganggap penyebaran Islam di alam Melayu sebagai satu misi yang suci dan istimewa. 
  5. Pengarang menegaskan peranan para Syed dalam Islamisasi alam Melayu, terutama syed-syed dari Hadramaut. Beliau menulis: “The Hadramautis were prominent in the Arab community.”
  6. “The Malays… stood in awe of them, and addressed them in the same respectful terms as they used towards their rajas.”
  7. “The Sayyids were the only group of outsiders accepted by royalty as equal in status. 

Influences on Malayan religious scene
  1. Salah satu unsur yang mempengaruhi gerakan semula dakwah Islam di Malaysia adalah gerakan Islam di Indonesia.
  2. Pada tahun akhir ke-1970 mulai gelombang yang kedua dalam gerakan dakwah semula Islam di Malaysia. Peringkat tersebut dipengaruhi oleh Ihwan Muslimin (Mesir) dan Jamaati Islami (Pakistan). Pada masa itu gerakan tersebut menjadi lebih radikal. Timbul rayuan supaya menjadikan Malaysia sebagai satu negara Islam berdasarkan al-Qur’an dan Sunnah.
  3. kegiatan ‘dakwagirls’. Golongan tersebut merupakan satu aliran radikal. Lazimnya mereka berusaha untuk menakutkan dan mendorong orang yang tidak ikut peraturan mereka (gadis tanpa tudung, orang Muslim dari aliran-aliran lain, orang yang beragama lain).

Chandra Muzaffar

Mutalib Hussin
  1. Sejarah gerakan Islam dan hubungan di antara bangsa-bangsa di Malaysia pada tempoh masa 1963 sehingga 1987 dijelaskan dalam buku Islam and Ethnicity in Malay Politics (KP JB 1744) yang dikarang oleh Mutalib Hussin. 
  2. Mutalib Hussin menulis bahawa sejak dahulu kala Islam menyerupai asas tamadun dan kehidupan masyarakat Melayu: “The Islam is an integral and significant factor in Malay culture is beyond dispute. …Islam…became part and parcel of the Malay world-view. The vocabulary of Malay literature and oral tradition is full of Islamic terms and values."
  3. Inilah sebabnya kerana Islam menjadi bendera dalam gerakan kemerdekaan dan slogan-slogan utama dalam kegiatan  UMNO selepas kemerdekaan:  “For Islam, it seemed that faith was still considered important by UMNO leaders, but in superficial level. Islam was taken for granted and given prominence only during election times when UNMO sought to counter PAS, since UMNO realized that it could only ignore the faith at its peril, given the integral nature of Islam in Malay culture and identity.” 
  4. Maklumat tersebut menunjukkan bahawa Islam menjadi “senjata” dalam pemilihan umum, kerana pengaruh agama di masyarakat Malaysia adalah amat kuat. 
  5. Mutalib Hussin menumpukan perhatian kepada perkembangan Islam dan Islamisasi pada tempoh masa semenjak tahun 1963 sehingga 1970an. 
  6. Beliau menyebutkan juga para  ulama dari 
  7. Indonesia yang berjasa banyak dalam proses Islamisasi di Malaysia.  

M.B. Hooker
  1. Bahan-bahan tentang Islam yang tersimpan dalam koleksi John Bastin menunjukkan bahawa terdapat satu salah faham mengenai Islam dan peranannya di dalam masyarakat Melayu, iaitu kontradiksi di antara pendapat orang Melayu mengenai sejarah dan masyarakat sendiri dan pendapat para ilmuwan Barat yang mengkaji alam Melayu sebagai subjek penelitian ilmiah. 
  2. Para cendekiawan Melayu menganggap Islam sebagai asas kesedaran kebangsaan dan kaedah kemajuan negara. 
  3. Namun ada beberapa ilmuwan Barat yang menganggap Islam sebagai unsur negatif yang mengakibatkan kemunduran masyarakat Melayu.  
  4. Pendapat bahawa agama (termasuk Islam) adalah unsur  negatif yang tidak memajukan masyarakat tersebar di dalam sosiologi Barat.  
  5. Hal tersebut dicerminkan dalam buku “Islam in South East Asia”  (KP JB 1743) yang disusun oleh M.B. Hooker. 
  6. Buku tersebut menyerupai kumpulan makalah tentang Islam di Asia Tenggara dan ciri-ciri khasnya (etnik, bahasa, budaya, hubungan budaya Islam Melayu dengan tradisi Hindu-Buddha dan sistem penjajahan Eropah).  
  7. Di dalamnya terdapat makalah sebagai berikut- MB Hooker “Introduction: The Translation of Islam into South-East Asia.”
  8. Dalam makalah tersebut pengarang mengikut pendapat bahawa Islam datang ke dalam Asia Tenggara pada kurun ke-13 dan ke–14. 
  9. Beliau menjelaskan bahawa pendapatnya berdasarkan fakta-fakta yang berikutnya, iaitu batu-batu nisan yang terawal bertarikh pada kurun ke-14 dan  ke-15, dan berdasarkan pada maklumat-maklumat Ibn Battutah, Marco Polo dan Tome Pires; berdasarkan tarikh Hikayat Raja Pasai dan Sejarah Melayu.  
  10. M.B. Hooker juga mengikut konsep Snouk Hurgronje, bahawa Islam di Nusantara datang dari India. Sebabnya kerana menurut pendapat beliau sastera Melayu di Sumatera dan Melaka berdasarkan tradisi India Selatan dan dipengaruhi olehnya. 
  11. Justeru itu  beliau tidak menerima pendapat bahawa para ulama Hadramaut lah yang membawa Islam ke alam Melayu.
  12. Sebagai subjek-subjek yang terpenting yang berkaitan dengan Islam di Nusantara pengarang menyebutkan fikh, sastera dan falsafah. 
  13. M.B. Hooker menganggap genre tersebut sebagai bentuk penyebaran Islam di alam Melayu pada kurun ke 16-17. 
  14. Terdapat senarai manuskrip-manuskrip yang berkaitan dengan subjek tersebut. Senarai manuskrip-manuskrip dilampirkan dengan keterangan. 
  15. Kesimpulan yang utama beliau adalah bahawa Islamization di alam Melayu bercampur dengan adat iaitu dengan tradisi Hindu-Buddha dan adat-istiadat pra-Islam iaitu: “Compromise, syncretism and localized sophistry are  the norm rather than the exception”.
  16. Pendapat tersebut berdasarkan analisis adat-istiadat orang Muslim di pelbagai pulau dan kampung. Memang dalam adat-istiadat sehari hari terutama di Jawa, Palembang, Kedah dan tempat-tempat yang lain.
  17. Hal ehwal undang-undang di masyarakat Melayu dan pengaruh syariah di dalamnya dijelaskan dalam makalah M.B. Hooker, Muhammad Law and Islamic Law. 
  18. Pengarang menumpukan perhatian kepada perkembangan undang-undang Islam di Asia Tenggara. Pengarang menjelaskan  dua istilah iaitu “Muhammadan Law” dan “Islamic Law”. 
  19. Menurut pendapat beliau dua istilah tersebut tidak sama dari segi maknanya. 
  20. “Muhammadan law” atau Undang-undang Muslim adalah kodeks undang-undang untuk orang Muslim secara individual. Manakala istilah  Islamic Law adalah undang-undang Islam berdasarkan al-Qur’an dan Sunnah. 
  21.  M.B. Hooker (1983), Muhammad Law and Islamic Law in Hooker, M.B. Islam in South East Asia. Leiden, h. 160-182.

A.C. Milner
  1. AC Milner, dalam  Islam and the Muslim State, makalah tersebut adalah tentang pengaruh Islam di dalam sistem kerajaan Melayu. 
  2. Pengarang menjelaskan istilah-istilah ‘kadi’ (dalam pelbagai ejean) imam, shariah,  undang-undang,  kerajaan, ummat yang terdapat dalam pelbagai teks sejarah di alam Melayu. 
  3. Beliau juga menumpukan perhatian kepada pelbagai kanun undang-undang yang tersebar di alam  Melayu (undang-undang Melaka, Undang-undang Laut dan lain-lain) yang membuktikan peranan syariah di masyarakat Melayu. 
  4. Pengarang tidak setuju dengan pendapat J.M. Gullick, bahawa Islam di alam Melayu  tidak mempunyai peranan apa-pun.
  5. A.C. Milner menegaskan juga bahawa dalam sistem kerajaan Melayu ada unsur-unsur tamadun Hindu Buddha. 
  6. Sistem kerajaan dan status ‘sultan’ di alam Melayu dipengaruhi oleh tradisi Persia – “Persianised Muslim court”.
  7. Kesimpulan tersebut berdasarkan maklumat-maklumat dari  Sejarah Melayu mengenai Iskandar Zulkarnain dan Nizam al-Mulk (Abu Ali Hasan Ibn Ali –al-Tusi, 1018 - 1092) iaitu seorang vasir Saljuk Persia
  8. Sultan-sultan Aceh ikut cara kehidupan para pemimpin India iaitu dinasti Mogul Agung yang dianggap sebagai “Persianised Mogul dynasty”. 
  9. Sementara itu pengarang menganggap konsep “Insan al-kamil” yang tersebar di dalam alam Melayu sebagai salah satu unsur tamadun Parsi juga. 
  10. Pendapat tersebut berdasarkan data-data tentang asal-usul para tokoh  Tassawuf yang merumuskan konsep “insan al-kamil’ tersebut. Katanya bahawa Ibn alArabi (wft. 1240) dan Abd al-Karim al-Jili (1365 -  1428) konon berasal dari Parsi. Walaupun al-Jili itu berasal dari kawasan Gilan (Iran), falsafah dan konsepnya menyerupai tamadun tassawuff yang umum yang tersebar di seluruh alam Islam. Konsep “insan al-kamil” tersebut adalah konsep universal yang tidak berkaitan dengan tamadun Parsi.  
  11. Dalam makalah terdapat juga pelbagai keterangan tentang sejarah Islam yang terawal di Nusantara. 
  12. Mengenai sejarah Islamization Asia Tenggara AC Milner menulis, bahawa orang Arab yang membawa agama ke dalam alam Melayu tidak berwibawa dan tidak mampu menarik perhatian raja-raja tempatan dan para penduduk tempatan.  

J.M. Gullick
  1. J.M. Gullick (1965), Indigenious Political Systems of Western Malaya. London

Noer Deliar
  1. Hal ehwal Islam dalam masyarakat Malaysia masa kini dan darjah perkembangannya dibicarakan dalam karya Noer  Deliar yang bertajuk Contemporary Political Dimension of Islam.
  2. Makalah tersebut adalah tentang keadaan Islam pada masa kini.
  3. Noer  Deliar (1983), Contemporary Political Dimension of Islam in Hooker, M.B. Islam in South East Asia. Leiden, h. 183-215.

Roy F. Ellen
  1. Roy F. Ellen “Social Theory, Ethnography and the Understanding of Practical Islam in South-East Asia”.
  2. Roy F. Ellen  (1983),  Social Theory, Ethnography and the Understanding of Practical Islam in South-East Asia in Hooker, M.B., Islam in South East Asia. Leiden h. 50-91.
  3. Makalah mengandungi hasil-hasil kajian tentang Islam di Asia Tenggara dari sudut ilmu sosiologi dan etnografi. 
  4. Lazimnya para ilmuwan Barat mengambarkan tamadun Melayu Islam berdasarkan anekdot-anekdot dan sumber yang tidak boleh dipercayai:  “What records exist commonly confused and conflate the distinctively Islamic with a myriad local traditions, and a few of the greater ones as well”. 
  5. “In Malaya several generations of scholar-administrators built up a picture of Malay Muslim culture based on a characteristic anecdotal empiricism”.
  6. Sebagai contoh ilmuwan tersebut R.F. Ellen menyebutkan nama-nama seperti berikut: I.H.V. Evans, C.A. Gibson-Hill, J.D. Gimlette, H.D. Noone, W.E. Maxwell, W.W. Skeat, C.O. Blagden, F. Swettenham, RJ Wilkinson, P.D.R.Williams-Hunt and R.O. Winstedt.
  7. Beliau menyebutkan bahawa istilah  Muslim dianggap sama maknanya dengan istilah  Melayu dan istilah  masuk Islam – sama maknanya dengan masuk Melayu. Berdasarkan bahan-bahan tentang adat istiadat Islam di Jawa, pengarang menjelaskan juga istilah “kejawen” dan perbezaannya di antara kejawen dan Islam (termasuk tasawwuf). 
  8. Terdapat juga keterangan tentang istilah ‘scripturalism’ (cara kepercayaan ortodoks, berdasarkan teks-teks suci), ‘salmetan, santri, kiai, fundamentalism, modernism’ dan lain-lain. 
  9. Dalam karangan Roy F. Ellen terdapat  juga analisis mengenai unsur-unsur adat dan Islam dalam kehidupan sehari-hari orang Muslim di Nusantara. 
  10. Pengarang menegaskan bahawa adat lazimnya tidak bercanggah dengan peraturan Islam.

Mubin Sheppard

  1. Sheppard, Mubin (1962), The Hajj. The Straits Times Annual for  pp. 24-27. (KP JB 1750).

Prof. Syed Muhammad Naquib al-Attas
  1. Prof. al-Attas bersangkal pendapat dengan R.O. Winstedt dan T.S. Raffles yang menyatakan bahawa sastera Melayu klasik telah dimusnahkan oleh kedatangan Islam. 
  2. al-Attas, Syed Muhammad Naquib (1970), The Mysticism of Hamzah Fansuri. Kuala Lumpur, pp. xvii, 556; (KP JB 1751).

Hamzah Fansuri
  1. Monograf menunjukkan bahawa di alam Melayu wujud tamadun falsafah dan tasawwuf yang amat menarik dan lengkap. 
  2. Hal tersebut menafikkan prasangka bahawa orang Melayu memeluk Islam secara formal, iaitu tidak mendalam sahaja.  
  3. Dalam senarai tajuk-tajuk mengenai Islam terdapat tiga judul, yang berkaitan dengan haji
  4. Ternyata subjek tersebut menarik banyak perhatian John Bastin dan lazimnya menjadi subjek kajian para ilmuwan. 
  5. Disebutkan bahawa maklumat-maklumat mengenai haji sukar dicari kerana para haji Melayu biasanya tidak menulis catatan peringatannya dan tidak berminat (tidak suka) berbincang tentang diri sendiri. 

Prof. William R. Roff
  1. Kertas kerja  “The Conduct of the Hajj from Malaya and the First Malay Pilgrimage Officer” (KP JB 1748) yang dikarang oleh William, R. Roff mengandungi maklumat tentang pengendalian haji dari Malaya ke Mekkah pada tempoh masa akhir kurun ke-19 sehingga 1940. 
  2. Dalam karya W.R.Roff  terdapat beberapa data statistik mengenai para penziarah dari India (termasuk Nusantara) yang dirakamkan dalam laporan misi-misi Inggeris yang hadir di Mekkah semenjak tahun 1861. 
  3. Pengarang menegaskan bahawa data-data statistik yang pertama mengenai para haji dari Jawa terdapat pada tahun 1883-1884. 
  4. Menurut data-data tersebut jumlah penziarah dari Singapura adalah 3342 orang; yang sampai dari alam Melayu ke Jeddah – 7716 orang. Sekitar 4392 orang menyerupai jumlah haji dari tempat-tempat Nusantara yang lain. 
  5. Terdapat juga datadata mengenai cukai dan pembayaran rasmi yang lain yang membayar para haji untuk mendapatkan semua dokumen-dokumen untuk  pergi haji. 
  6. Kertas kerja tersebut mengandungi bahan-bahan yang  amat penting tentang pengendalian haji dari alam Melayu ke Mekkah. 
  7. Ternyata pengendalian haji di alam Melayu adalah peristiwa yang biasa dan hubungan di antara alam Melayu dan Mekah wujud dan  berkembang walaupun tidak disokong oleh pentadbiran penjajahan Eropah.

Dutch Empire and the Hajj

How far did the Dutch empire retain its status as a maritime empire in the nineteenth century? How big was Dutch espionage on the Muslim World?

Adventurer's photos capture a bygone Mecca by Barry Neild for CNN, 18 November 2010, updated 1954 GMT (0354 HKT)

Christiaan Snouck Hurgronje - with his rare 1885 photographs and sound recordings of Mecca.

Mecca: A Dangerous Adventure -- Snouck Hurgronje's early photographs 1885 is showing until December 6, 2010 at Dubai's Empty Quarter Gallery.

The earliest Dutch recordings of Makkah was in 1885, by Snouck Hurgronje. He was a pioneer multimedia journalist, and was accused as a Dutch spy. He stayed in Makkah for 5 months and converted to Islam. He fled Makkah when he took something and was accused a thief. he left his camera and recordings to a Syed partner. Syed continued to write to Hurgronje in Netherlands. Hurgronje left his pregnant Ethiopian wife in Makkah but they remarried and lived in Indonesia. He married more wives. What happened to him in the end? Nobody knows.

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Eric Tagliocozzo, ‘Kettle on a slow boil: Batavia’s threat perception in the Indies’ Outer islands, 1870-1910’ in Journal of South-east Asian Studies, 2000.

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eighteenth century’ in The Dutch trading companies as knowledge networks, (2010)

Ibn Battuta's Rihla (1304-1377) and French African Hajj 1946-1958

Between Empire, Umma, and the Muslim Third World: The French Union and African Pilgrims to Mecca, 1946–1958
by Baz Lecocq


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Isabel Hofmeyr, ‘The Idea of ‘Africa’in Indian Nationalism: Reporting the Diaspora in The Modern Review 1907–1929’ in South. African Historical Journal, 57, 2007, pp.60-81.

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Ibn Battuta's Rihla - World Digital Library

My Rihla - Bruce Sterling

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Hajj Papers



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A Bang, Sufis and Scholars in the sea: family networks in East Africa

Engseng Ho, Graves of Tarim: geneaology and mobility across the Indian ocean

U Freitag and W. G. Clarence-Smith, eds. Hadhrami traders, scholars and statement in the Indian
ocean 1750s-1960s (1997)

Michael Miller, ‘Pilgrim’s Progress: The Business of the Hajj’ in Past and Present. May 2006.

Dale F. Eickelman and James Piscatori, Muslim Travellers: Pilgrimage, Migration, and the Religious Imagination (Berkeley: 1990)

F.E. Peters, The Hajj: The Muslim Pilgrimage to Mecca and the Holy Places (Princeton: 1994) Ch4 onwards.

Barbara Metcalf, ‘What happened in Mecca? Mumtaz Mufti’s ‘Labbaik’’ in Robert Folkenflik, ed. The Culture of Autobiography (Stanford, 1993)

M N Pearson, Pilgrimage to Mecca: The Indian Experience (Princeton, 1996), Chapters after 1750

D. Parkin and S. Headley eds. Islamic prayer across the Indian ocean (2000).

Tim Youngs ed. Travel Writing in the Nineteenth Century: Filling the Blank Spaces, Chapter 7 on Nawab Sikander Begam’s haj pilgrimage.

Sugata Bose, A Hundred Horizons: the Indian Ocean in the age of global empire (Cambridge, Mass., 2006), Chapter Six, “Pilgrim’s Progress under Colonial Rules”, pp.193-233

Saurabh Mishra, ‘Beyond the bounds of time? The Haj pilgrimage from the Indian subcontinent,
1865-1920’, pp.31-44, in Harrison and Pati (eds.), The Social History of Health and Medicine in
Colonial India (London, 2009)

M.C. Low, ‘Empire and the Hajj: pilgrims, plagues and Pan-Islam 1865-1908’, International Journal
of Middle Eastern Studies, 40, 2008, 269-290

William Roff, ‘Sanitation and Security: the imperial powers and the nineteenth century Hajj’, Arabian Studies VI, 1982, 143-61

William Ochsenwald, Religion, society, and the state in Arabia : the Hijaz under Ottoman control,
1840-1908 (Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1984).  (ch 2: religion, ch. 3:  pilgrimage)

Mecca the blessed Madina the Radiant by Dr.Emel Esin

William R Roff


Professor William R Roff
Honorary Professorial Fellow
Islamic and Middle Eastern Studies
University of Edinburgh
19 George Square

Research interests
The social and intellectual history of Islam in Southeast Asia, 18th-20th centuries, and the comparative study of Muslim societies with special reference to Arabia, Egypt and South Asia and to such institutions as the hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca), education, Islamic economics, and legal systems.

  1. Roff, W. R. 1982. "Sanitation and security: the imperial powers and the nineteenth century Hajj,"  in Arabian Studies, 6, pp. 143-160. Cambridge.
  2. Roff, W. R. 1984. "The Meccan pilgrimage: its meaning for Southeast Asian Islam," in Islam in Asia. Volume II: Southeast and East Asia. R. Israeli & A.H. Johns (eds.). Jerusalem: Magnes Press.
  3. Roff, W. R. 1985. "Pilgrimage and the history of religions: theoretical approaches to the Hajj," in Approaches to Islam in Religious Studies. R. C. Martin (ed.), pp. 78-86. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.
  4. Roff, W. R. (ed.) 1987. Islam and the Political Economy of Meaning: Comparative Studies of Muslim Discourse. University of California Press.
  5. Roff W. R. 2009. Studies on Islam and Society in Southeast Asia. Singapore: NUS Press.

  1. "An argument about how to argue" in Islamic Legal Interpretation: Muftis and their Fatwas. Harvard University Press, 1996.
  2. "Patterns of Islamisation in Malaysia, 1890s-1990s: exemplars, institutions and vectors" in Journal of Islamic Studies (Oxford) 1998.
  3. "Social science approaches to understanding religious ritual: the special case of the Hajj” in Malaysia: Islam, Society and Politics, ISEAS, Singapore, 2001.
  4. "Murder as an aid to social history: the Arab community in Singapore in the early twentieth century” in Transcending Borders: Arabs, Politic, Trade and Islam in Southeast Asia. KITLV, Leiden, 2002.
  5. "Pondoks, madrasas and the production of ‘ulama in Malaysia” in Studia Islamika (Jakarta), 2004.
  6. "The Ins and Outs of Hadrami journalism in Malaya, 1900-1941: assimilation or identity maintenance?” in Proceedings, International Conference on Yemeni-Hadramis in Southeast Asia, Kuala Lumpur, 2005.
  7. “Functions of the Internet in a Sectarian Islamic Context,” in ISIM Review (Leiden), numéro 15, Spring 2005, pp. 50.
  8. “La présence belge en Égypte, 1891-1961,” in Chronos, n°9, July 2004, pp. 173-210.
  9. Roff, William, R. The Conduct of the Hajj from Malaya and The First Malay Pilgrimage Officer. Occasional Papers N1; Institute of Malay Language, Literature and Culture; National university of Malaysia, pp. 81-112.

Roff, William. R
  1. Roff, William. R (1982), Sanitation and Security: The Imperial Powers and Nineteenth Century Hajj, Arabian Studies, VI, pp.143-160.
  2. Dalam makalah “Sanitation and Security: the Imperial Powers and Nineteenth Century Hajj” terdapat  maklumat tentang sanitasi dan keselamatan di Mekah pada masa haji serta tentang usaha-usaha pentadbiran penjajahan Eropah dalam bidang keselamatan dan sanitasi. Pengarang menegaskan bahawa pada tahun ke-1820an muncul dan tersebar di Eropah penyakit kolera yang konon (katanya) datang dari Asia bersama dengan para penziarah dari Asia. Pengarang menyatakan bahawa maklumat rasmi tentang penyakit kolera di Arabia terdapat pada tahun 1821 dan juga pada tahun 1828-1929. Pada tahun 1831 dimaklumkan mengenai 20 ribu orang haji yang mati kerana kolera tersebut.  
  3. Historians, echoing colonial officials’ anxieties about cholera and pan-Islamism, have generally presented the hajj in the decades leading up to World War One as a source of “twin infection”.
  4. Dimaklumkan juga bahawa jumlah umum para jemaah haji dari alam Melayu pada tahun ke-1850an adalah sekitar 2000 orang dari Malaya dan 5-7000 orang setahun dari kawasan Benua Kecil Asia Tenggara. 
  5. Terdapat juga jaswal jumlah umum haji dari negara-negara Timur pada tahun 1882 sehingga 1900 (ms. 150). 
  6. Diketemui juga  cerita mengenai sejarah misi-misi Ingerris di Jiddah dan Mekah pada masa yang sama. 
  7. Makalah tersebut adalah amat menarik kerana mengandungi data-data yang nyata tentang pengendalian haj ke Mekah dan keadaan di dalam Mekah dan Madinah. 
  8. Data tersebut membuktikan (mengesahkan) beberapa maklumat dari teks sejarah  Tuhfat al-Nafis (1866) mengenai haji yang dilaksanakan oleh Raja Ahmad Bin Raja Haji dan anaknya Raja Ali Haji.  
  9. Lawatan haji tersebut diadakan pada tahun 1828
  10. Dimaklumkan bahawa Raja Ahmad jatuh sakit juga. Bila beliau sembuh beliau bersumpah supaya melaksanakan haji.

Hajj references by Roff, as provided by Dr Lubis (29 April 2013):

"The Conduct of Hajj From Malaya and The First Malay Pilgrimage Officer," SARI No. 1, 1975. 

"Pilgrimage and the History of Religions: Theoretical Approaches to the Hajj", in Richard C. Martin (ed), Approaches to Islam in Religious Studies, Tuscon: The University of Arizona Press, 1985.

"Sanitation and Security: The Imperial Powers and the Nineteenth Century Hajj", Arabian Studies, Vol. VI, 1982.

"The Meccan Pilgrimage its Meaning for Southeast Asian Islam", in Raphael Israel and Anthony H. Johns (eds.) Islam in Asia, Southeast Asia and East Asia, Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1984.

"Social Science Approaches to Understanding Religious Practice, The Special Case of the Hajj", in Virginia Hooker & Norani Othman (eds.), Malaysia: Islam, Society and Politics, Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2003.

William R. Roff, Studies on Islam and Society in Southeast Asia, Singapore: NUS Press, 2009.

  1. Peter Riddell's Book Review in IJAPS, Vol. 7, No. 2 (July 2011) published by Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia, 2011: http://ijaps.usm.my/?page_id=548 http://ijaps.usm.my/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/BookReview_StudiesOnIslamandSocietyinSoutheastAsia.pdf Part V concludes the volume with essays written in 2002, 1982 and 1975 (in order of volume presentation). The three essays all consider issues connected with the Muslim pilgrimage, the Hajj, such as the methodology of studying the pilgrimage ritual, as well as practical matters to do with sanitation and security and specific issues connected with Malays on pilgrimage.
  2. Clive S. Kessler's Keynote Address in Akademika 78 (Jan.-April) 2010; 103-108. Malay National Narrative and Malaysian Historiography: Before Postmodernity and Its Discontents, and After Too. http://www.ukm.my/penerbit/akademika/ACROBATAKADEMIKA78/akademika78[10]A4.pdf The final section of the book deals with the hajj rites and related health and sanitation problems - the "twin infections" of cholera and smallpox, health policies and regulations re the hajj procedures and monitoring the pilgrims' health. It also includes an essay on Abdul Majid bin Zainuddin, a former teacher and Malay Pilgrimage Officer (1924-39) prior to WWII, and whose autobiography is, The Wandering Thoughts of a Dying Man (Oxford U.P. Kuala Lumpur 1978), which Roff saw to its publication.
  3. Michael Laffan's Book Review: http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=7668564. Michael Laffan (2010). Review of William R. Roff  'Southeast Asia. Studies on Islam and society in Southeast Asia' Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, 41, pp 350-351. doi:10.1017/S0022463410000135. The book is divided into 5 themes: Historiography and methodology, Malaya and Singapore, Arab world connections, Kelantan and the Meccan pilgrimage.

Russian Hajj 1880s-1910


Black Sea

Transportation Milestones
  • In 1903 direct Odessa-Jeddah service was introduced on Russian steamships; this made it possible for Muslim pilgrims to get from the Black Sea to Red Sea ports without changing ships.
  • In 1906 a rail line was finished linking Tashkent to Orenburg and on to Odessa.
  • By 1908 the Ministry of Transport had organed special “hajj cars” for rail service between Tashkent and Odessa.
  • After 1908, Russian steamship companies built hajj facilities not just in Odessa but all around the Black Sea
  • By 1909 the Volunteer Fleet was running “Hejaz steamships” out of Odessa exclusively for Muslim pilgrims.

The Hajj Season in Odessa
  • The hajj traffic dramatically altered Odessa’s human landscape, filling the streets with crowds of Muslim men – women and children were rare – most of them poor, exhausted, and dirty from a week spent crammed into a poorly ventilated train car.
  • On their backs they carried huge sacks stuffed with necessities for the weeks-long journey: blankets, carpets, cups, pots and pans, stores of dried bread (sukhar’), fruits and vegetables, and metal locks and samovars to sell in Arabian markets.
  • Most spoke no Russian and were at the mercy of self-styled “hajj agents” that swarmed their arriving trains.
  • Consistent with the fixed timing of the hajj by the Islamic calendar, these crowds were intensely seasonal: they formed in Odessa suddenly, over a span of a few months, and disappeared as quickly, boarding steamships a month or so ahead of the scheduled rituals in Arabia (the date of which shifted back eleven days each year, in line with the calendar’s lunar cycles).
  • For locals looking on, the initial effect must have been something like seeing the carnival come to town: costumed figures parading through the streets and speaking in strange tongues, the air thick with smells of rotting food and long-unwashed bodies, paper tickets littering the streets, shady types lurking in the margins, before the crowds cleared and the whole thing was over.
  • However short-lived hajj season in Odessa was, it had become an integral, though controversial, part of the city’s economic and political life by the early twentieth century.
  • Entire industries sprung up to serve the crowds: bakeries producing “Sart” breads, firms hiring out Turkic-speaking interpreters, travel agencies offering cut rates on steamers to Arabia, and criminal rings – found everywhere the lucrative hajj crowds moved – hawking everything from fake Chinese passports to tickets on non-existent steamers.

Improvements of the Russian Hajj Conditions
  • In 1897 Tsar Nicholas II established the Commission on Measures for Prevention and Struggle against the Plague, Cholera, and Yellow Fever (KOMOCHUM). Around that time the tsarist government began sending Russian doctors and spies into Arabia to collect information about conditions on hajj ships, and the spread of disease.
  • In 1904 the Chief Medical Inspectorate (under the Ministry of Internal Affairs) began drafting rules for monitoring Russia’s Muslim pilgrims abroad to control the spread of cholera.
  • A hajj complex called the Khadzhikhana was built in Odessa to accommodate 3,000 pilgrims and serve as a one-stop centre for matters concering the hajj
  • Hajj pilgrims were disinfected in batches, naked and labeled. They also included Turkestan, China and Tartar pilgrims. Incidence of cholera among Russian hajj pilgrims decreased at the next hajj.
  • Railroads, ROPiT, and the Volunteer Fleet competed in organizing the hajj traffic

Other references

Dominic Lieven, Empire: The Russian Empire and its Rivals

Meet Rohani bt Omar

This is my second post on Rohani Omar, who makes souvenirs for the Physiology Club which collects money to fill the patients' fund at Hospital USM. This time I took her photo as she brought me some  laminated bookmarks. She draws beautiful flowers on the back of the bookmarks which I think would also be great as wall motifs anywhere. There was yellow porcelain teapot with flowers which I bought from her Club at my professorial talk in 2010 - I still have it near me at home when I watch TV or do my writing work on my laptop. This is only a sample of her work. I think she is a genuine aspiring and talented artist who draws flowers beautifully freehand. You must meet her and see her beautiful art work, and support her work for her Club and our hospital fund.

Puan Rohani bt Omar
Scientific Officer
Dept of Physiology
School of Medical Sciences
Universiti Sains Malaysia
16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan
Phone : 609-7673000 ext. 6165
Fax : 609-7653370
Email: orohani@kck.usm.my

The Islamic Lunar Calendar


Allah's perfect Creations

Quran Surah 9:36-37

Creation of time (exactness of time)
Solar day (sunset, sunrise)
Lunar months (moonset, moonrise)
Qiblat prayer direction and international dateline (eastward, westward towards Kaabah)
Muslim prayer times (Subuh, Zohor, Asar, Maghrib and Isya)
Ramadan Fasting (determination of start and end)

Friday, 26 April 2013

The Penang Bookshelf


Thursday, 25 April 2013

Plague, Cholera and the Hajj 1865-1926


Empire of the Hajj: Pilgrims, Plagues, and Pan-Islam under British Surveillance,1865-1926
Michael Christopher Low
Georgia State University
Digital Archive @ GSU
Dept of History
16 July 2007

Follow this and additional works at: http://digitalarchive.gsu.edu/history_theses

Recommended Citation
Low, Michael Christopher, "Empire of the Hajj: Pilgrims, Plagues, and Pan-Islam under British Surveillance,1865-1926" (2007).
History Theses. Paper 22.


“A Woeful Crescendo of Death” 38
Edwin Chadwick and the Foundations of British Attitudes Toward Cholera 44
Science versus the Science of Denial 48
International Sanitary Conferences and the Quarantine Controversy 54
The Thomas Cook Hajj: Reforming the “Sanitary Pariah of the East” 65
Pauper Pilgrims, the Suez Canal, and the Civilizational Boundaries of Travel 71

Cholera’s Grande Finale 106
The Bombay Plague of 1896: The Defeat of British Sanitary Obstructionism 113

The Hashimite Interregnum 161
The Wahhabi Conquest of the Hajj 166

Figure 1. The Ka'ba and the Masjid al-Haram, Mecca, 1885 2
Figure 2. Major Pilgrimage Routes in the Nineteenth Century 4
Figure 3. "Actual and Supposed Routes of Cholera from Hindoostan to Europe" 5
Figure 4. The Western Indian Ocean Basin, c. 1935 34
Figure 5. An Early Sketch Map of the Kamarān Island Quarantine Station, 1892 61
Figure 6. Tihāma-style Hut, Kamarān Island 63
Figure 7. Sultan Abdul Hamid II, c. 1890 89
Figure 8. Early Twentieth-Century Pilgrims at Jidda's Harbor 103
Figure 9. Dastūr al-‘Amal, Anjuman-i Khuddām-i Ka‘ba, 1913 139

The first House established for the people was that at Bakka [Mecca], a place holy, and a guidance to all beings. Therein are clear signs—the station of Abraham, and whosoever enters it is in security. It is the duty of all men towards God to come to the House a pilgrim, if he is able to make his way there.
-Qur’an, 3:96-97

And proclaim to humanity the Pilgrimage, and they shall come unto thee on foot and upon every lean camel. They shall come from every remote place that they may witness things profitable to them.
-Qur’an, 22: 27-28*

*All translations from the Qur’an have been taken from A.J. Arberry, The Koran Interpreted (London:
Allen and Unwin, 1955; repr. ed., New York: Touchstone, 1996).

Terminologies and things of general interest:
haramayn (sacred areas) of Mecca and its nearby sister city, Medina.
dar al-Islam (the Islamic world)
The Suez Canal was opened in 1869 [see page 3 footnote 3 for travel routes before 1869]
the ‘ulama’ (religious elites and scholars)

the introduction of steamship of “modern” hajj
the steamship-era hajj
C.A. Bayly,
The Birth of the Modern World, 1780-1914 (Malden, M.A. and Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2004), 354;
William R. Roff, “Sanitation and Security: The Imperial Powers and the Nineteenth Century Hajj” in Arabian Studies
VI (London: Scorpion Comm. and the Middle East Centre, University of Cambridge, 1982), 143.

influx of India’s destitute pilgrim masses and the globalization of epidemic disease

British Indian pilgrims were a “dangerous class” of “pauper pilgrims.”
David Arnold, Colonizing the Body: State Medicine and Epidemic Disease in Nineteenth-Century India (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993), 186-189.

... see Foreign Office (hereafter F.O.) 78/4094 in “British efforts to improve travel conditions for pilgrims; appointment of travel agent; problem of indigent pilgrims,” Oct. 1884-Feb. 1887, Alan de L. Rush, ed., Records of the Hajj: A Documentary History of the Pilgrimage to Mecca, vol. 3 (London: Archive Editions, 1993), 593-626.

A virulent epidemic of cholera broke out in the Hijaz in 1865, killing an estimated 15,000 pilgrims.

Robert Koch discovered the bacillus vibrio cholera in 1884.

The VK7(C) Dream

VK7(C) is the pay grade for Malaysian professors today. It is the most sought after and the most privileged pay for an academic at a government institution, especially in medical school, and especially in Kelantan, where I work.

The VK7(C) is the lowest rung of the Malaysian professors pay scheme; above it is VK7(B) and the top and highest paid is VK7(A). Going from C to B takes approximately 10 years; going from B to A takes about the same time. By the time a person gets VK7(C), he/she is about 50 years old (on average). Most professors end their career at 56/58/60 with VK7(C). Many never get to VK7(B) or VK7(A). Deputy VCs and their circle get VK7(B). The VC and his circle get VK7(A).

I am at VK7(C) since 29 January 2009. I have another 5 years to go before I reach compulsory retirement at 60. Under normal work conditions, I will never get to see VK7(B), unless of course a miracle happens. I will leave that matter alone.

The salary statement was issued by USM Bendahari and I received mine this morning. Let's see what is in store for the next 5 years ... The letter is in Malay but this is what I understand of it.

Pay Scheme for University Lecturers VK7(C)

Basic salary: RM12,278.04/mo


1. Official functions: RM2,500.00/mo ... this is the limit for us to spend on official things

2. Housing: RM1,300.00/mo .... got own house

3. Special Grade: RM1,000.00/mo ... not sure what this is

4. Servant: RM500.00/mo ... got no maid

The annual basic salary is RM147,336.45 per annum (~AUD$43,850.00 pa)

The allowance is good for spending inside Malaysia but is not too good for outside spending.

At retirement, the pension works out to 40% of last pay (basic salary) = RM4,911.22/mo (~AUD$1,461.00/mo) ... tax-free

The basic pay of an entry/fresh MSc/PhD lecturer is RM2,500.00/mo.

The maximum basic salary of an Office Assistant/Pembantu Am Rendah (PAR) is ~RM2,000.00/mo.

Minimum pay in Malaysia today is RM1,000.00/mo.

Not bad at all. Not bad at all. Living in Kelantan, this is heaven on earth! Life is better in Kelantan than anywhere else. There no highway toll. We use well water and electricity. Food is freshly cooked and halal anywhere in Kelantan. There are mosques and suraus everywhere and anywhere. There are fresh markets everywhere. There are no dogs and pigs except where they are allowed. Life is safe and very good up here in Kelantan. I wouldn't want to be anywhere else.


To bloggers elsewhere: Please do not copy-and-paste or re-post my posts elsewhere or in your blogs.