Tuesday, 1 November 2011

Malacca Hospitals (1511-2011)

Source: Lipatan Sejarah, Hospital Besar Melaka

Malacca hospitals existed at 3 locations since 1511.

PORTUGUESE HOSPITALS
(i)   Hospital Del Rey 
(ii)  Hospital De Porres 
(iii) Hospital _____ for officers
There were 2 hospitals within the walls of fortaleza or A'Famosa (Kota Melaka) during the Portuguese era (1511-1641) - Hospital Del Rey (Hospital Diraja) and Hospital De Porres (Hospital Orang Miskin). There was one more hospital, but I'm uncertain of its name.

DUTCH HOSPITAL
None is known to date. 

BRITISH HOSPITALS
(i) Durian Daun Hospital 1884-1934/
     Pauper Hospital at Durian Daun 1894
The British had built a hospital in Durian Daun in 1884, known as Durian Daun Hospital. It catered mainly to the British residents. However, there were newspaper reports of Eurasians, Indians, Chinese and a few Malays sent to this hospital. Cases included births, motor-vehicular accidents (MVA) and murder victims. There was no x-ray facility available and patients had to be sent to Singapore for x-rays. In 1898, there was a bathing well where employees could bathe. The Hospital was understaffed in 1926 - by right it should have 6 medical officers and 28 dressers. There were 24 hospital staff in 1926: a Chief Medical Officer, 2 Deputy Medical Officers, an Assistant Surgeon, 15 dressers, a Sister, and 4 nurses. The hospital was short of 2 medical officers and 13 dressers in 1926.

The hospital at Durian Daun was known as the Pauper Hospital in 1894.
MALACCA.
The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser (1884-1942), 28 April 1894, Page 11The storeroom of the Pauper Hospital at Durian Daun was broken open, and a quantity of pure iodoform and opium, in value about $150, and some money from a chest, about $25, were taken. The chest was found broken open in the padi field near the hospital. The night watchmen, when questioned, professed to know nothing about the affair; but as traces of the iodoform were found on two of them their tale is hardly credible; and four of the watchmen have been detained.
A Chinese opium addict patient had attempted to commit suicide by jumping into the well in 1898.
MALACCA.
The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser (1884-1942), 16 August 1898, Page 3 On the 5th instant, at about 9 p.m., an employee at the Hospital at Durian Daun went to bathe at the well, when he found a man at the bottom. He called two other men, and by the aid of ropes the man was pulled out. There was about 10 ft. of water in the well, the surface of the water being 5 ft. from the ground level. Ngo A Chin, the man who was in the well, told a friend that the doctor had taken away his opium and he did not want to live any longer. At the Police Court on Thursday he was committed to take his trial on a charge of attempting to commit suicide.
This is a mention of the Durian Daun Hospital in 1913, prior to the First World War.
PRESENTATION AT MALACCA.
Forthcoming Departure of Dr A. H. Keun.
There was a pleasant function at Durian Daun hospital, Malacca, on the 18th inst., when the staff of the medical and veterinary departments assembled to bid farewell to Dr. A. H. Keun, medical officer, on his approaching departure to England. A group photograph was taken.
An obituary of Mr Erskine who died at Durian Daun Hospital appeared in September 1917.
SOCIAL AND PERSONAL.
The Straits Times, 18 September 1917, Page 6The death of Mr. Erskine, the P.W.D. overseer in charge of Merlimau, occurred at the Durian Daun Hospital early last Friday rather suddenly, says our Malacca correspondent. It was only the previous day that Mr. Erskine was taken into hospital. The funeral took place on Friday evening. Much sympathy is felt for the family he has left behind.
Chinese estate workers trusted the Western doctors and the Durian Daun Hospital in a 1925 report.
MALACCA MEDICAL BOARD.
Growing Confidence of Estate Population.
In the report of the Malacca Agricultural Medical Board for 1924, the administrator, the Hon. Mr. J. W. Campbell, says:-
"Taking the returns sent in, the average estate population represented is 18,634, amongst which there were 371 deaths, giving a death rate of 19.9 per mile. The figures last year were 18,730 and 359 respectively, giving a death rate of 19.1 per mile."
"Infantile mortality still continues high, but it is hoped that the proposed training scheme for line ayahs will provide a supply of suitable women for infant welfare work on estates, and thus effect an improvement in this particular branch of health waork. 
"The close co-operation between the Government Medical Department and the officers of the Board ... has been fully maintained, to the mutual benefit of both. I would here like to record the aprreciation of the Board, its medical officers, and of myself as administrator, of the deep interest taken in estate health matters, and the active co-operation in working details taken by the Acting Chief Medical Officer, Malacca, (Dr. Chambers), to whose interest and energy, we owe the recent course of training and the examination for dressers, and also the working out of the scheme for the training of line ayahs.
"A monthly meeting of doctors is held at Durian Daun hospital by kind courtesy of the Chief Medical Officer, when views are exchanged on items of interest in their own work and on any interesting cases in hospital. These meetings are useful in many ways, and react to the benefit both of the doctors themselves and those under their care. A feature of interest in the year's working is the growing confidence between the doctors and the Chinese estate population. Orders are now more readily carried out, advice is more frequently sought, and special calls are now being received from Chinese Estates, a feature which, in previous years, was more conspicuous by its absence than otherwise.
"Estate sanitation and general preventive work still remains the main concern of the Board's doctors, and no efforts are being spared by them to improve helath, and health conditions, in the areas under their charge.
In 1926, Mr Tan Cheng Lock of the Legislative Council had asked if the Medical Department in Malacca was understaffed.
LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL.
Malacca Medical Staff.
The staff at the Durian Daun Hospital, Malacca, consists of-One Chief Medical Officer; Two Deputy Medical Officers; One Assistant Surgeon; Fifteen dressers; One Sister; Four nurses.
LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL.
Malacca Medical Matters
Monday, March 29th, 1926
Governor's Rolls Royce $16,500 for a 20 h.p. 
Vauxhall 1929 condemned as unserviceable
----
Malacca Medical Matters
Mr Tan Cheng Lock asked re staffing of the Durian Daun Hospital at Malacca. According to him, there were only 3 officers as compared with 4 stated by the P.C.M.O. to be employed there. He said, the Chief Medical Officer confined himself to administrative duties and did not do any real hospital work. The Malacca Medical Department establishment should consist of 6 medical officers, whereas there were actually only 4. According to the Estimates there should be 28 dressers, and according to the reply of the P.C.M.O. there were only 15.
Mr J. H. Owen, harbour master and city coroner, was hospitalised at the Durian Daun Hospital in 1928.
SOCIAL AND PERSONAL.
The Straits Times, 7 August 1928, Page 8 Mr. J. H. Owen, Harbour Master and City Coroner, Malacca, is an inmate at the Durian Daun Hospital.
This is a short article that mentioned Durian Daun Hospital in September 1931.
Mr. J.P.H. Beck of the Tranquerah English School, Malacca, met with a nasty accident while taking part in the Officials' race in the Banda Hilir English School Sports on the Saturday before last. He was an inmate of the Durian Daun Hospital for about a week, but he is now better.-M.M. Taken from The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser (1884-1942), 25 September 1931, Page 18  
This is another short article that mentioned Durian Daun Hospital in October 1931.
On Friday night, a well-known sportsman and teacher, Mr. Benjamin Gomes, of the Banda Hilir English School, Malacca, was the victim of an attack by some unknown person who hit him with a small hatchet at 11 p.m. near the Malay Mosque at Banda Hilir. Mr Gomes is now lying in the Durian Daun Hospital in a critical condition with three serious skull wounds.-M.M. Taken from The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser (1884-1942), 15 October 1931, Page 8
In 1932, the Kuala Lumpur Sanitary Board discussed to temporarily house the Malayan opium-smoking lepers at the Circular Road camp with high security wires, and later move them to the old Durian Daun Hospital when the new Malacca Hospital was ready.
OPIUM-SMOKING LEPERS
The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser (1884-1942), 6 August 1932, Page 18The Kuala Lumpur Sanitary Board discussed the old leper asylum at Circular Road in Kuala Lumpur was to be used as a temporary settlement for all opium-smoking lepers in Malaya.
There were 275 lepers in this settlement, of whom 230 came from Pulau Jerejak and elsewhere in the Colony and 30 from Johore.
The old Durian Daun Hospital was to be used for these opium-smoking lepers, but the locals had petitioned as they did not want a leper settlement at their doorsteps.
MEDICAL PRACTICE IN ANCIENT TIMES.
The Straits Times, 21 December 1932, Page 12
Malayan Doctors Meet in Malacca.
Malacca, Dec. 19.
Dr. A. L. Hoops C.B.E.
Dr. E. V. Lupprian
Dr. P. Pinson
Office of the P.C.M.O. at Durian Daun Hospital
Dr. M. Y. Lum
Dr. W. J. Vickers
Doctors:
(Miss) E. C. Davies
A. N. Kingsbury
W. H. Hart
W. J. Duncan
O. F. Conoley
T. S. Macaulay
A. F. Mackay
T. Wilson
E. Egan
A. G. Badenoch
B. Barrowman
C. J. Boyd
A. L. Hoops
I. Stubbs
W. A. Nicholas
A. K. Lung
D. C. Richards
Tan Seng Tee
B. H. Ong
P. Pinson
K. C. Kwong
E. V. Lupprian.
Dr. D. C. Macaskill
-----
O. J. Conoley
M. Y. Lum
W. J. Vickers
R. N. L. Symes
A. E. Duraisamy
W. H. Hart
W. J. Dixon
G. E. Beggs
A. N. Kingsbury
W. J. Duncan

Durian Daun Hospital closed in 1934 when the new hospital at Bukit Pala was opened on 12 February 1934. Equipment were transferred from the old Durian Daun Hospital to the new Malacca General Hospital.


(a) Malay Women's Teachers Training College at Durian Daun, Malacca 1935-present

The First Class Ward of the old Durian Daun Hospital then became the Malay Women's Teachers Training College at Durian Daun in early 1935.
Institut Pendidikan Guru Kampus Perempuan Melayu Melaka http://www.arkib.gov.my/web/guest/penubuhan-institut-pendidikan-guru-kampus-perempuan-melayu-melaka.
There was however earlier attempt to convert the unused Durian Daun Hospital into a leper asylum, but this proposal was met with a lot of objection and was disfavoured. LEPROSY CAMP IN SUBURBS. The Straits Times, 4 August 1932, Page 5
MALAYA'S ONLY COLLEGE FOR MALAY GIRLS
The Straits Times, 10 November 1935, Page 5New Use For Malacca's Old General Hospital
PROGRESS OF MALAYA'S ONLY GIRLS' COLLEGE
Malacca, Nov. 9.
The old vacant Durian Daun Hospital became a teachers training centre for Malay girls.
The first class ward and added spaces and alterations have become the training college for Malay girls from the Straits Settlements, the Federated Malay States, and the Unfederated States.
Miss N. Purdom is the principal of the College. She was retired and recalled to work. She is assisted by Miss M. Lomas and Che Fatimah. There was provision for 24 girls in the new college which wad opened in the early part of 1935. However, there were 150 applications, not only from the S.S., the F.M.S., but as far afield as Labuan and Kelantan.
The curriculum is a 2 years course and includes all subject taught in Malay schools. Emphasis is on domestic subjects and industrial occupations. The gilrs have to prepare their own food, clean and wash their own rooms. The day's work begins at 7 a.m. From 7 a.m. to 8 a.m. domestic work is taught. 9 a.m. to 1 p.m. is spent in teaching academic subjects. The afternoon, 4 p.m. to 6.30 p.m., is devoted to recreation. The girls are also taught singing, music and dramatic work. Gardening and the rearing of poultry are also encouraged. 
The apartments and rooms of the college are arranged so as to give a Malay woman some idea of artistic and practical order of life at home. The colour scheme is most attractive to Malay women and although expensive to the eye the total cost is within the limit of a Malay woman's salary. The college buildings consist of four dormintories, one craftroom, one library, two lecture rooms, one sick room, a private mosque, a kitchen and a laundry. There are four badminton courts and a netball ground. The Principal's house is on the grounds of the college itself. 
On educating these girls great care is being taken by the principal to make the evolution gradual to avoid any jarring effects. The principal is also striving to bring these generally shy girls to meet girls of other races who form the cosmopolitan population of Malaya.
The Malay Women's Teachers Training College at Durian Daun then became the Japanese army camp during the Japanese Occupation in Malacca (1942-1945). The Japanese officers occupied the 3 college lecturers' double-storey bungalows at the edge of the field. There were also a few single-storey bungalows beyond the long wooden hospital ward buildings. 
Our family, Puan Shahnaz's family and Puan Hendon's family (her name? married to a Mr McCloud, a whiteman) lived at the single-storey bungalows.

My family then moved to a more spacious double-storey bungalow at the edge of the field. We occupied the middle double-storey bungalow, from where the photo below was taken. Cikgu Yasin and family occupied the bungalow in front of us (nearest the main campus gate). Mr Dass and family occupied the double-storey bungalow behind us. Mr Dass had died of a sudden heart attack and my father took him to Malacca General Hospital. Ruth Dass played the piano. Mrs Dass made payasam for us twice. 
'Lilin penerang perjalanan'
Hajah Rogayah Muhammad (49) was born in Singapore in 1938. She received teacher training at Maktab Perguruan Melayu Perempuan Durian Daun Melaka (1955-7). She taught at Sekolah Melayu Perempuan Scotts Road in 1958, and later at Geylang Craft Centre (1961), Sekolah Menengah Perempuan Cedar (1963), and Sekolah Menengah Perempuan Raffles (1974-87). She taught for 29 years and retired in May 1987. Her husband has also retired. Their children are Dr Norhayati (28) of Hospital Daerah Muar, and Norazman (27) who is undergoing pharmacy training in Australia.
The Malay Women's Teachers Training College became known as Maktab Perguruan Perempuan Melayu Melaka in the 1970s. My sister-in-law Hamidah bt Hussien was a student of this college. She then became a schoolteacher in Pasir Mas, Kelantan.

Former Durian Daun Hospital. Then Maktab Perguruan Perempuan Melayu, Durian Daun, Melaka; circa 1972-1975. Photo by Abdul Rashid bin Mohd Yusope (deceased in 2009). 


The long wooden buildings on stilts were the old hospital wards. These buildings were not in use when my family lived nearby, across the field (1972-75). I only lived here for 2 years (1972-73) before I went to Tunku Kurshiah College. I had gone to see the interior of one of the long buildings (in the middle of this photo), and it was empty - just an empty wooden floor, with bare interior. The wooden buildings looked dilapidated and the windows were left shut, the grounds uninteresting, deserted, and a bit scary (tempat lama tak bertuan, seram sikit). 

I have not been back at Durian Daun since I left the place in 1974. The last I heard the old Durian Daun Hospital buildings would be demolished. The buildings were demolished before 2015, to make way for a football playing field and parking lot. The idea of demolition of the old Durian Daun Hospital, and building a new football field in its place, was discussed in 1935, during British Malacca.
Scenic Ocean Drive On Land Won From WavesThe Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser (1884-1942), 19 June 1935, Page 6MALACCA'S "HEALTH" BOULEVARDSecond Playing FieldAt present, properly speaking there is only one padang for public recreation, and that is situated at Kubu plain, some distance out of town. However, there is a movement on foot to open up certain other areas in this most congested town of Malaya, and within a few months a second playing field-solely for football enthusiasts-will make its appearance on the site of the old hospital at Durian Daun.

(b) Malacca Trade School, Durian Daun 1935-ceased before 1970
The Malay Girls' Teachers' Training College occupied the First Class Ward of the old Durian Daun Hospital. The rest of the old hospital buildings were converted into Malacca Trade School.
MALACCA TRADE SCHOOLS FIRST ANNIVERSARY
Increase In Number Of Students
Tailoring And Shoemaking To Be Added
Malacca
February 6 this year saw the first anniversary of the Malacca Trade School. The school began with an enrolment of ten and Mr B. V. Richards, of the High School staff, became headmaster. Mr Hewitt was his assistant carpentry instructor.  There were 23 students in the carpentry class. Tailoring is being added this year and other trades (possibly shoemaking as the first) will be added as the demand arises.


(ii) Bukit Palah Hospital, opened on 12 February 1934/
      Malacca General Hospital 1934-present
The British built another hospital at Bukit Palah/Bukit Pala (a Chinese had suggested to build the hospital at Ujong Pasir, between the Prison and the beach). The idea of a new hospital for Malacca was suggested by Dr. A. L. Hoops C.B.E. in 1921. Sir Hugh Clifford intervened in 1927 and the hospital was ready in 1934. The cause of the delay was lack of available funds. One hospital block was also removed from the original plan and that helped to reduce its cost.

The hospital is known by many names: Malacca Hospital at Bukit Pala/Palah, Malacca General Hospital, Rumah Sakit Umum Melaka, and Hospital Besar Melaka. The hospital has many blocks and they are named A, B, C, D, and a Pharmacy.
MALACCA'S NEW HOSPITAL.
The Straits Times, 13 February 1934, Page 12
GOVERNOR OPENS NEW HOSPITAL The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser (1884-1942), 13 February 1934, Page 2 Notable Addition To Malacca Public Institutions (From Our Own Correspondent) Malacca, Feb. 12. In fine weather, a monster crowd assembled on Bukit Pala to witness the openening ceremony of the new hospital. Boy Scouts lined the road leading to the main block and Sir Cecil Clementi arrived a little after 5 p.m. A guard of honour from the M.V.C. and a band were present.His Excellency and party then entered the hall of "A" Block accompanied by His Excellency the G.O.C., Major-General Lewin, and together with Mr. A. Caldecott, Colonial Secretary, occupied seats on the platform with Dr. Fitzgerald, Director of Medical and Health Services, Mr. G. Sturrock, Director of Public Works, and Mr. G. C. Millington, Resident Councillor, Malacca.Mr. Sturrock in his speech said that the new Hospital originated on the suggestion of Dr. Hoops in 1921, but the matter had to be temporarily shelved on the grounds of expense. Sir Hugh Clifford, after his inspection in 1927, suggested the demolition of Durian Daun Hospital and its replacement by permanent buildings on an up-to-date scheme to cist $1,280,000 in all.Mr. Tan Cheng Lock and Mr. H. E. Nixon, both Malacca members of Council, at the Legislative Council Meeting held in August, 1928, raised the question on the new Hospital site and suggested Ujong Pasir as a suitable location, however, an investigation of the site led to its abandonment in favour of Bukit Pala, and work began in October, 1930 at an estimated cost of nearly $2,430,000 but later on, one block of the proposed structure was abndoned, this reduced by $400,000 the cost. TRIBUTE TO DONOR Reference was made to the parts played by Mr. F. Dorrington Ward, Government Architect, Dr. Hoops, and Mr. Cuthbertson, Superintending Architect, for the successful completion of the splendid building.Dr. Fitzgerald next spoke, outlining the progress of hospitals in Malacca from the days of Alfonso Albuquerque to the present one and tribute was paid to Mr. Chee Swee Cheng, the donor of the most up-to-date Victor X-Rays installation that exists to-day in Malacca. Dr. Fitzgerald said he hoped the people of Malacca, especially Malays, would make use of the hospital.Sir Cecil Clementi in declaring the building open, congratulated the Medical and Public Works Departments on the successful completion of the new hospital. H.E. ADDRESS His Excellency said: I have, on several occasions, seen these buildings while under construction, and I am glad to be here to-day to witness their completion. They are entirely worthy of Malacca; and a great credit to the Medical and the Public Works Departments. I hope that in them cure and comfort will be found by the sick and suffering of this Settlement for many years to come.I am also glad to know that the hospital buildings which are now to be vacated at Durian Daun will be used as a training school for female Malay teachers. Such an institution has long been needed in this peninsula, and I am much pleased that it is to be provided at Malacca. I wish both new institutions every success.In the new hospital it is intended to commemorate some of those who have been especially concerned in its construction. Ward "A" will be named "Hoops Ward." because Dr. Hoops was chiefly responsible for the initiation of the scheme fro building a new hospital at Malacca. Ward "B" will be named "Dorrington Ward"- the pun is purely fortuitous-after the Government Architect, who has had most to do with the design and with the sueprintendence of the construction of the new buildings. Ward "C" and "D" will be named "Nixon Ward" and "Tan Cheng Lock Ward" respectively, because both these unofficial members of Legislative Council have taken a very helpful interest in the new hospital. It is  great pleasure to me that the services rendered to Malacca by these four gentlemen should be permanently commemorated in this manner.I now declare these hospital buildings to be open.The decision was announced to utilize the buildings of the old Durian Daun Hospital as a school for training female Malay teachers, the first of its kind in Malaya.The Governor and party of guests next inspected the various sections of the new hospital. The building presented a striking spectacle when flood-lighted from 7 p.m. to 10 p.m.
CHIEF M. O. GOES ON LEAVE.
The Straits Times, 22 October 1935, Page 17Dr E. V. Lupprian on The Malacca Hospital.
(From Our Own Correspondent.)
Malacca, Oct. 20.
A large crowd of staff of the Malacca Medical Department attended the farewell function of Dr E. V. Lupprian, Chief Medical Officer of Malacca, held at Bukit Pala.
Dr Lupprian replied: My first experience of hospital accommodation in Malacca was at the old Durian Daun Hospital. ... I experienced on my first view of this present General Hospital... several of us here-both of the general public and the Medical Staff-possessed a great affection for the old hospital, as it was a very homely type of cottage hospital in which we achieved great success in the alleviation of pain and cure of disease.
MALACCA'S M.B.E.
The Straits Times, 1 July 1936, Page 16 Captain Tan Seng Tee was born in Malacca in 1889, the 5th son of Mr Tan Hoon Hin.
He was educated first at the High School, Malacca, where he was awarded the Diamond Jubilee Scholarship in 1906 and 1907 and Tan Teck Guan Scholarship in 1907, and later at the Straits Settlements Medical College, Singapore (now the King Edward VII Medical College), where he won the Tan Wee Bin Scholarship, and obtained the diploma of L.M.S. in 1913.
He served in the Durian Daun Government Hospital in 1914, after which he went into private practice. He has been Visiting Medical Officer to the Malacca Agriculture Medical Board since 1922, was appointed a Justice of the Peace in 1922, and was a Municipal Commissioner from 1922 to 1929.

The old Durian Daun Hospital and the new Malacca Hospital at Bukit Pala/Bukit Palah were used by the Japanese Army during the Japanese occupation in Malacca in 1942-45. 

The King Edward VII Medical College in Singapore had closed down during the war. The Japanese took over the medical school and opened a Japanese medical college at Hospital Bukit Palah/Hospital Besar Melaka. That closed down at the end of the war, and the Singapore medical school reopened after the war. Among the early Malay doctors who attended the KE VII Medical College in Melaka included Tan Sri Dr Raja Ahmad Noordin.


Postcard of Hospital Besar Melaka

Address 1:
Hospital Besar Melaka
Jalan Mufti Haji Khalil
75400 Melaka
Tel: 06-282 2344 / 06-281 9000
Fax: 06-284 1590
Websites:
http://hmelaka.moh.gov.my/malay/
Superpages: Hospital Besar Melaka
Facebook: Hospital Besar Melaka
Wikipedia: Malacca General Hospital 

Address 2:
Che Sukri bin Che Mat
Timbalan Pengarah (Pengurusan)
Bahagian Pengurusan
Hospital Melaka
Jalan Mufti Haji Khalil
75400 Melaka.
Tel: 06-289-2002
Fax: 06-281-3240
E-mail: che_sukri@mlk.moh.gov.my



Prison and District Hospitals
Beside the main Durian Daun Hospital, there were other hospitals in Malacca - Prison Hospital in Ujong Pasir/Banda Hilir, Jasin Hospital in Jasin District and Alor Gajah Hospital in Alor Gajah District.
Page 7 Advertisements Column 3
There were hospitals at Malacca, Jasin and Alor Gajah.
Planks for coffins, Durian Daun Hospital.
Cartage for the removal of dead bodies from Durian Daun and Prison Hospitals.

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