Saturday, 30 April 2011

Lung Cancer in Malaysia

I've picked out the salient points and listed them here for public interest and for my present research and writing, and maybe later for my IT contract research. I've written the points in appraisal form so you can see what's lacking in health & disease statistics wrt lung cancer in Malaysia.

Published review:

Dr Hooi Lai Ngoh
- comprehensive national population-based cancer registry 
- it is the leading cause of cancer death in Malaysia
- one of the most common cancers in Malaysia
- there were 38,836 cancer admissions to government hospitals in 1998 [ie 15 MOH hospitals excluding district hospitals]
- lung cancer was the commonest cause of cancer admission among adult males [which means we don't have to worry about adult females getting lung cancer]
Cancer of the trachea, bronchus and lung is listed as the leading cause of cancer death in Malaysia  [affected is the respiratory system and 3 major sites - the trachea, bronchus and lungs; can try pull out images from Radiology PACS and collate that with Pathology biopsy slides with all the different stainings; can also do height, body mass, BMI and other parameters on the patients physical attributes (anthropometry); then do Artificial Intelligence (AI) for selecting young smokers and work on their potential for lung cancer and get them on treatment earlier before cancer goes to a non reversible stage and cancer death becomes real; may have to co-plan for psychology and counseling for hard core young smokers]
- mortality rate is 2.48 per 100,000 population in 1999 based on deaths in government hospitals [should at least mention how many govt hospitals were used for the statistical analysis; with 10 years data prior to 1999 should be able to project data for next 10 years (1999-2010) and compare that to real mortality rate for 2010; can also do projection for the next 10 years (2010-2020)]
- lung cancer ranked fifth in males with a prevalence of 7.7 per 100,000 [ignore females for now; what are the 4 major killers in males?]
- lung cancer has an overall poor prognosis and low survival rate [the more reason to ban smoking in Malaysia. It is banned in USM Health Campus.]
- household community survey [what advice did the researchers give the smokers among family members? Among those smokers who were advised, how many did actually heed medical advice and totally quit? Was quiting ever surveyed? If not why not?]

Selected References:
  1. Ministry of Health Malaysia.  Discharge rate and mortality rate in government hospitals per 100,000 population.  In: Malaysia’s Health 2000; Appendix 4: 293.
  2. Ministry of Health Malaysia.  Cancer control.  In:  Annual report 1999; 132.
  3. Ministry of Health Malaysia.  Mortality rate of malignant neoplasm/cancer per 100,000 population, Malaysia, 1999.  In: Indicators for monitoring and evaluation of strategy for health for all by the year 2000; Health Indicator No. 3.10, 2001; 78.
  4. Lim KG.  Cancers.  In: A review of diseases in Malaysia.  2nd edition 2001; 7: 79 – 85.
  5. Norhayati O, et al.  Cancer statistics, HUSM 1985 – 1992.  Mal J Pathol 1994; 16: 103 (abstract No. P10).
  6. Penang State Health Department.  Penang Cancer Registry 1996 statistical report.
  7. Ismail Y, Zulkifli A, Zainol H.  Lung cancer in Kelantan.  Med J Malaysia 1990; 45: 220 – 4.